Bio: Anton Meinhart is an academic researcher from Max Planck Society. The author has contributed to research in topics: RNA polymerase II & Antitoxin. The author has an hindex of 27, co-authored 42 publications receiving 3187 citations. Previous affiliations of Anton Meinhart include Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich & Free University of Berlin.
TL;DR: Structural and functional studies of CTD-binding and -modifying proteins now reveal some of the mechanisms underlying CTD function, and the basis for CTD specificity of these enzymes remains to be understood.
Abstract: The C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) integrates nuclear events by binding proteins involved in mRNA biogenesis. CTD-binding proteins recognize a specific CTD phosphorylation pattern, which changes during the transcription cycle, due to the action of CTD-modifying enzymes. Structural and functional studies of CTD-binding and -modifying proteins now reveal some of the mechanisms underlying CTD function. Proteins recognize CTD phosphorylation patterns either directly, by contacting phosphorylated residues, or indirectly, without contact to the phosphate. The catalytic mechanisms of CTD kinases and phosphatases are known, but the basis for CTD specificity of these enzymes remains to be understood.
TL;DR: The model suggests that, during the mRNA transcription-processing cycle, compact spiral regions in the CTD are unravelled and regenerated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.
Abstract: During transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) II synthesizes eukaryotic messenger RNA. Transcription is coupled to RNA processing by the carboxy-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II, which consists of up to 52 repeats of the sequence Tyr 1-Ser 2-Pro 3-Thr 4-Ser 5-Pro 6-Ser 7 (refs 1, 2). After phosphorylation, the CTD binds tightly to a conserved CTD-interacting domain (CID) present in the proteins Pcf11 and Nrd1, which are essential and evolutionarily conserved factors for polyadenylation-dependent and -independent 3'-RNA processing, respectively. Here we describe the structure of a Ser 2-phosphorylated CTD peptide bound to the CID domain of Pcf11. The CTD motif Ser 2-Pro 3-Thr 4-Ser 5 forms a beta-turn that binds to a conserved groove in the CID domain. The Ser 2 phosphate group does not make direct contact with the CID domain, but may be recognized indirectly because it stabilizes the beta-turn with an additional hydrogen bond. Iteration of the peptide structure results in a compact beta-spiral model of the CTD. The model suggests that, during the mRNA transcription-processing cycle, compact spiral regions in the CTD are unravelled and regenerated in a phosphorylation-dependent manner.
TL;DR: This work analyzes recruitment of Nrd1, which cooperates with Nab3 and Sen1 to terminate small nucleolar RNAs and other short RNAs in Budding yeast, and indicates why Nrd 1 cross-links near 5′ ends of genes and why the NRD1–Nab3–Sen1 termination pathway acts specifically at short Pol II–transcribed genes.
Abstract: RNA polymerase II (Pol II) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae can terminate transcription via several pathways. To study how a mechanism is chosen, we analyzed recruitment of Nrd1, which cooperates with Nab3 and Sen1 to terminate small nucleolar RNAs and other short RNAs. Budding yeast contains three C-terminal domain (CTD) interaction domain (CID) proteins, which bind the CTD of the Pol II largest subunit. Rtt103 and Pcf11 act in mRNA termination, and both preferentially interact with CTD phosphorylated at Ser2. The crystal structure of the Nrd1 CID shows a fold similar to that of Pcf11, but Nrd1 preferentially binds to CTD phosphorylated at Ser5, the form found proximal to promoters. This indicates why Nrd1 cross-links near 5' ends of genes and why the Nrd1-Nab3-Sen1 termination pathway acts specifically at short Pol II-transcribed genes. Nrd1 recruitment to genes involves a combination of interactions with CTD and Nab3.
TL;DR: Comparison of the complete Pol II structure with structures of the Pol II core and free Rpb4/7 shows that the core-Rpb 4/7 interaction goes along with formation of an α-helix in the linker region of the largest Pol II subunit and with folding of the conserved Rpb7 tip loop.
Abstract: We determined the x-ray structure of the RNA polymerase (Pol) II subcomplex Rpb4/7 at 2.3 A resolution, combined it with a previous structure of the 10-subunit polymerase core, and refined an atomic model of the complete 12-subunit Pol II at 3.8-A resolution. Comparison of the complete Pol II structure with structures of the Pol II core and free Rpb4/7 shows that the core-Rpb4/7 interaction goes along with formation of an α-helix in the linker region of the largest Pol II subunit and with folding of the conserved Rpb7 tip loop. Details of the core-Rpb4/7 interface explain facilitated Rpb4/7 dissociation in a temperature-sensitive Pol II mutant and specific assembly of Pol I with its Rpb4/7 counterpart, A43/14. The refined atomic model of Pol II serves as the new reference structure for analysis of the transcription mechanism and enables structure solution of complexes of the complete enzyme with additional factors and nucleic acids by molecular replacement.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated in vitro that zeta toxins in general phosphorylate the ubiquitous peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) and that this activity is counteracted by binding of antitoxin, the first crystal structure of a zeta toxin bound to its substrate.
Abstract: Most genomes of bacteria contain toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems. These gene systems encode a toxic protein and its cognate antitoxin. Upon antitoxin degradation, the toxin induces cell stasis or death. TA systems have been linked with numerous functions, including growth modulation, genome maintenance, and stress response. Members of the epsilon/zeta TA family are found throughout the genomes of pathogenic bacteria and were shown not only to stabilize resistance plasmids but also to promote virulence. The broad distribution of epsilon/zeta systems implies that zeta toxins utilize a ubiquitous bacteriotoxic mechanism. However, whereas all other TA families known to date poison macromolecules involved in translation or replication, the target of zeta toxins remained inscrutable. We used in vivo techniques such as microscropy and permeability assays to show that pneumococcal zeta toxin PezT impairs cell wall synthesis and triggers autolysis in Escherichia coli. Subsequently, we demonstrated in vitro that zeta toxins in general phosphorylate the ubiquitous peptidoglycan precursor uridine diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UNAG) and that this activity is counteracted by binding of antitoxin. After identification of the product we verified the kinase activity in vivo by analyzing metabolite extracts of cells poisoned by PezT using high pressure liquid chromatograpy (HPLC). We further show that phosphorylated UNAG inhibitis MurA, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis. Additionally, we provide what is to our knowledge the first crystal structure of a zeta toxin bound to its substrate. We show that zeta toxins are novel kinases that poison bacteria through global inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis. This provides a fundamental understanding of how epsilon/zeta TA systems stabilize mobile genetic elements. Additionally, our results imply a mechanism that connects activity of zeta toxin PezT to virulence of pneumococcal infections. Finally, we discuss how phosphorylated UNAG likely poisons additional pathways of bacterial cell wall synthesis, making it an attractive lead compound for development of new antibiotics.
10 Mar 1970
01 Aug 2000
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TL;DR: Biochemical and structural investigations that advance the mechanistic understanding of the three major classes of PSPs are discussed, with a focus on PP2A.
Abstract: The reversible phosphorylation of proteins is accomplished by opposing activities of kinases and phosphatases. Relatively few protein serine/threonine phosphatases (PSPs) control the specific dephosphorylation of thousands of phosphoprotein substrates. Many PSPs, exemplified by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and PP2A, achieve substrate specificity and regulation through combinatorial interactions between conserved catalytic subunits and a large number of regulatory subunits. Other PSPs, represented by PP2C and FCP/SCP, contain both catalytic and regulatory domains within the same polypeptide chain. Here, we discuss biochemical and structural investigations that advance the mechanistic understanding of the three major classes of PSPs, with a focus on PP2A.
TL;DR: The highly automated PHENIX AutoBuild wizard is described, which can be applied equally well to phases derived from isomorphous/anomalous and molecular-replacement methods.
Abstract: Iterative model-building, structure refinement, and density modification with the PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard Thomas C. Terwilliger a* , Ralf W. Grosse-Kunstleve b , Pavel V. Afonine b , Nigel W. Moriarty b , Peter Zwart b , Li-Wei Hung a , Randy J. Read c , Paul D. Adams b* a b Los Alamos National Laboratory, Mailstop M888, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Bldg 64R0121, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA. c Department of Haematology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 0XY, UK. * Email: firstname.lastname@example.org or PDAdams@lbl.gov Running title: The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard Abstract The PHENIX AutoBuild Wizard is a highly automated tool for iterative model- building, structure refinement and density modification using RESOLVE or TEXTAL model- building, RESOLVE statistical density modification, and phenix.refine structure refinement. Recent advances in the AutoBuild Wizard and phenix.refine include automated detection and application of NCS from models as they are built, extensive model completion algorithms, and automated solvent molecule picking. Model completion algorithms in the AutoBuild Wizard include loop-building, crossovers between chains in different models of a structure, and side-chain optimization. The AutoBuild Wizard has been applied to a set of 48 structures at resolutions ranging from 1.1 A to 3.2 A, resulting in a mean R-factor of 0.24 and a mean free R factor of 0.29. The R-factor of the final model is dependent on the quality of the starting electron density, and relatively independent of resolution. Keywords: Model building; model completion; macromolecular models; Protein Data Bank; structure refinement; PHENIX Introduction Iterative model-building and refinement is a powerful approach to obtaining a complete and accurate macromolecular model. The approach consists of cycles of building an atomic model based on an electron density map for a macromolecular structure, refining the structure, using the refined structure as a basis for improving the map, and building a new model. This type of approach has been carried out in a semi-automated fashion for many years, with manual model-building iterating with automated refinement (Jensen, 1997). More recently, with the development first of ARP/wARP (Perrakis et al., 1999), and later other procedures including RESOLVE iterative model-building and refinement (Terwilliger,
TL;DR: From the earliest comparisons of RNA production with steady-state levels, it has been clear that cells transcribe more RNA than they accumulate, implying the existence of active RNA degradation systems.
Abstract: From the earliest comparisons of RNA production with steady-state levels, it has been clear that cells transcribe more RNA than they accumulate, implying the existence of active RNA degradation systems In general, RNA is degraded at the end of its useful life, which is long for a ribosomal RNA but very short for excised introns or spacer fragments, and is closely regulated for most mRNA species RNA molecules with defects in processing, folding, or assembly with proteins are identified and rapidly degraded by the surveillance machinery Because RNA degradation is ubiquitous in all cells, it is clear that it must be carefully controlled to accurately recognize target RNAs How this is achieved is perhaps the most pressing question in the field