TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the relationship between patent renewal and patent commercialization in developing countries and found that patent renewal is the top most barrier to commercialization and no potential for technology is the main reason for non-renewal of patents.
Abstract: Research on pharmaceuticals has mainly focused on the needs of developed countries while the scenario in developing countries is unclear. This industry is knowledge-intensive and unusually sensitive to intellectual property rights (IPRs).Patents play very important role in their business and this entails good management practices by the firms from various aspects of patent management. Two dimensions viz. commercialization of patents and renewal of patents are studied in this paper. There is dearth of in-depth research studies on these dimensions of patent management in India. A random sample of 300 granted pharmaceutical patents for patent renewal and another sample of 300 patents selected through purposive sampling for patent commercialization have been drawn from the population of granted pharmaceutical patents by the Indian Patent Office between 2005-06 and 2013-14. The information on working of patents has been taken from Form-27 submitted by the patent assignees of the selected patents. Some of the main findings are: a weak but positive and significant correlation between patent renewal & commercialization, blocking motive is the top most barrier to commercialization, direct contact with the partners is the chief mode of commercialization, no potential for technology is the main reason for non-renewal of patents, and enhancement of reputation is the main reason for renewal.
TL;DR: It is found that growth in the pharmaceutical and biotech sectors in India has been characterized by multiple handicaps and oligopoly, with the nature of expansion not having relevance for the disease profiles in India.
Abstract: To reveal inequity in health in India. The global paradigm of the knowledge economy propounds that growth and equity will occur if there is a free-market economy without state intervention and if patents are provided as incentives for innovation. In this paper, we explore the veracity of this thesis by investigating growth in the pharmaceutical and biotech sectors in India, and by looking at equity issues through the lens of gender health and health costs for poor consumers. We used data from current publications to support this thesis. We found that growth has been characterized by multiple handicaps and oligopoly, with the nature of expansion not having relevance for the disease profiles in India. The scenario of gender health and health costs of the poor is grim due to state retrenchment and neglect of the provision of public good, such as in health matters. One can conclude that equity has not occurred under a growing pharmaceutical sector. This finding has huge implications for public policy in India and other emerging nations.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used the survey method based on the views expressed by 220 Sri Lankan registered patent holders and categorised by organisational and individual ownership to find out the relationship and impact of the three Helixes on the most crucial stage of the innovation process: the commercialisation of patents, and to ascertain if there is a varying impact determined by patent ownership.
Abstract: Purpose This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the innovation environment of a developing nation through the Triple Helix model, revealing the existing inter-relationships between the three Helixes of Academia–Industry–Government. It sets out to find out the relationship and impact of the three Helixes on the most crucial stage of the innovation process: the commercialisation of patents, and to ascertain if there is a varying impact determined by patent ownership. Design/methodology/approach This cross-sectional study uses the survey method based on the views expressed by 220 Sri Lankan registered patent holders and categorised by organisational and individual ownership. The sample is drawn from the database of the National Intellectual Property Office of Sri Lanka and patents registered through the Patent Cooperation Treaty, extracted from the World Intellectual Property Organisation Patent Scope database. The survey was carried out in 2019 and limited to patents registered during the period 2010–2014. Findings The empirical findings indicate weak inter-relationship between Academia support, Industry support and patent commercial success, while the support of the Government Helix is non-significant in the commercial stage. The findings also indicate two different support standards existing in each Helix for the two ownership groups. Research limitations/implications The study is limited to a five-year window in a relatively early period in the country’s innovation policy development. The study model is also limited by the non-inclusion of mediators such as government-backed affiliated agencies and academia technical transfer offices which if incorporated would improve the study model and be more reflective of the actual environment and their role as change agents bridging the transition to a hybrid Triple Helix. Practical implications The study findings capture the inter-relationships of the Triple Helix existing in a developing country at the most crucial stage of the innovation process. It helps policymakers identify the gaps in each Helix that stands wanting and take measures to rectify them by creating a more favourable National Innovation System. An innovative environment that will facilitate patent holders achieve higher technological transfers and commercial success rates. Social implications The findings disclosure of two different support standards existing in each Helix for the two patent ownership groups poses a challenge for policymakers and challenges the core objective of increasing the commercial success of patents granted. The findings strengthen the need for a more robust support system to be put in place that would empower and facilitate the individual patent owner to increase the share of economic value arising from this underutilised patent group. Originality/value This study contributes by furthering the Triple Helix model in a social context and micro-setting by operationalising the theoretical practices. The study also gives insight into each Helix’s interaction and contribution during the most crucial stage of innovation management in a developing economy and its impact on the two categories of patent ownership which is scarce.