Bio: Arief Rachman is an academic researcher from Indonesian Institute of Sciences. The author has contributed to research in topics: Algal bloom & Phytoplankton. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 18 publications receiving 54 citations.
TL;DR: Results unequivocally show that the species M. polykrikoides is abundantly present, in the form of vegetative cells, hyaline and resting cysts in an Indonesian area.
Abstract: Margalefidinium polykrikoides, an unarmored dinoflagellate, was suspected to be the causative agent of the harmful algal blooms - associated with massive fish mortalities - that have occurred continually in Lampung Bay, Indonesia, since the first bloom event in October 2012. In this study, after examination of the morphology of putative M. polykrikoides-like cysts sampled in bottom sediments, cyst bed distribution of this harmful species was explored in the inner bay. Sediment samples showed that resting cysts, including several morphotypes previously reported as M. polykrikoides, were most abundant on the northern coast of Lampung Bay, ranging from 20.6 to 645.6 cysts g-1 dry sediment. Molecular phylogeny inferred from LSU rDNA revealed that the so-called Mediterranean ribotype was detected in the sediment while M. polykrikoides motile cells, four-cell chain forming in bloom conditions, belonged to the American-Malaysian ribotype. Moreover, hyaline cysts, exclusively in the form of four-cell chains, were also recorded. Overall, these results unequivocally show that the species M. polykrikoides is abundantly present, in the form of vegetative cells, hyaline and resting cysts in an Indonesian area.
University of Tokyo1, Central Luzon State University2, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology3, National Fisheries Research & Development Institute4, University of Malaya5, National University of Singapore6, Chulalongkorn University7, Jinan University8, Russian Academy of Sciences9, Indonesian Institute of Sciences10, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak11, Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources12, University of the Philippines Diliman13, Tokai University14
TL;DR: The co-occurrences of the two harmful Chatt onella species in Southeast Asia, which are difficult to distinguish solely based on their morphology, suggest the importance of molecular identification of Chattonella genotypes for further understanding of their distribution and negative impacts.
Abstract: Red tides and associated fisheries damage caused by the harmful raphidophyte Chattonella were reassessed based on the documented local records for 50 years to understand the distribution and economic impacts of the harmful species in the Western Pacific. Blooms of Chattonella with fisheries damage have been recorded in East Asia since 1969, whereas they have been only recorded in Southeast Asia since the 1980s. Occurrences of Chattonella have been documented from six Southeast Asian countries, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam, with mass mortalities mainly of farmed shrimp in 1980–1990s, and farmed fish in 2000–2010s. These occurrences have been reported with the names of C. antiqua, C. marina, C. ovata, C. subsalsa and Chattonella sp., owing to the difficulty of microscopic species identification, and many were not supported with molecular data. To determine the distribution of C. marina complex and C. subsalsa in Southeast Asia, molecular phylogeny and microscopic observation were also carried out for cultures obtained from Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, Philippines, Russia, Singapore and Thailand. The results revealed that only the genotype of C. marina complex has been detected from East Asia (China, Japan, Korea and Russia), whereas both C. marina complex (Indonesia and Malaysia) and C. subsalsa (Philippines, Singapore and Thailand) were found in Southeast Asia. Ejection of mucocysts has been recognized as a diagnostic character of C. subsalsa, but it was also observed in our cultures of C. marina isolated from Indonesia, Malaysia, Japan, and Russia. Meanwhile, the co-occurrences of the two harmful Chattonella species in Southeast Asia, which are difficult to distinguish solely based on their morphology, suggest the importance of molecular identification of Chattonella genotypes for further understanding of their distribution and negative impacts.
07 Apr 2015
TL;DR: In this article, a study aimed to know the level of public knowledge and awareness about Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in Lampung Bay has been conducted.
Abstract: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause various problems, such as water quality degradation, fauna mass mortality and impairment of human health. Water quality monitoring in Lampung Bay has been conducted by Lampung Marine Aquaculture Office (BBL) of the Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries since 1994. Occurrence of Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum (Pbc), a causative organism of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), has been recorded but threats caused by HABs have never been reported. A study aimed to know the level of public knowledge and awareness about HABs in Lampung Bay has been conducted. The components of group respondents consisted of local governments, academics and coastal communities. Awareness from each component was examined including general HAB knowledge, HAB impact to the community, HAB occurence and local knowledge of HAB. Data of HAB knowledge were collected through questionnaire and focus groupÂ discussion. The result showed that 40.5% of respondents had knowledge of HABs phenomena and 51.3% respondents only know signs or indicators of HAB occurrence, while only 1.4% respondents had knowledge of local HAB occurences. The direct impact of HABs to the community was not commonly known by the respondents. Only a few cases of poisoning after eating seafood were reported. It can be concluded that there was lack of public knowledge and awareness on HABs in Lampung Bay. Intensive public awareness programs about HABs should be conducted in order to reduce risk towards HABs in Lampung Bay.
01 Mar 2020
TL;DR: In this article, the seasonal alternations of phytoplankton community structures and its driving factors were discussed with data obtained from four cruises of April 2013, May 2014, June 2012 and October 2015, during the period of monsoon transition time of SE monsoon.
Abstract: Phytoplankton species composition and abundance in the Lembeh Strait waters was studied in four cruises of April 2013, May 2014, June 2012 and October 2015, during the period of monsoon transition time of SE monsoon. With data obtained the seasonal alternations of phytoplankton community structures and its driving factors were discussed. A total of 416 taxa belonging to 5 classes of phytoplankton were recorded in the four month surveys. Phytoplankton density was averaged 2 348 cell/L and diatoms and dinoflagellates had the most diversified species. Cyanobacterium was characterized by its low species numbers but high abundance in the waters of Lembeh Strait. Total phytoplankton abundance occurred low in April and October in the monsoon transition period and it raised high in May and June during the SE monsoon. Frequently occurred species were pelagic diatoms in addition to cyanobacterium Trichodesmium. Abundance and diversity of phytoplankton significantly differed seasonally. The diatoms Thalassionema and Pseudo-nitzschia, and cyanobacterium Trichodesmium contributed most to the community dissimilarities. Due to potentially higher nutrient supply in the south of Lembeh Strait, diatoms and dinoflagellates showed higher densities in the south than in the north of the strait. Though, cyanobacterium preferred distributing much evenly in all waters, it had higher density in the southern Lembeh Strait. Total phytoplankton abundance is quite low compared with the Jakarta Bay and some bays in China. Analysis showed that nutrients from upwelling forced by SE monsoon are the key factor varying the monthly phytoplankton abundances. Due to its primitive nature state, Lembeh water can be an ideal location for the study of pelagic ecosystem under merely the influence of macro environment changes with lower background noise from human activities.
TL;DR: This review covers new information since two previous reviews in 2012, including how and why DA and its isomers are produced, the world distribution of potentially toxigenic Nitzschia species, the prevalence of DA isomers, and molecular markers to discriminate between toxigenics and non-toxigenic species.
Abstract: Some diatoms of the genera Pseudo-nitzschia and Nitzschia produce the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), a compound that caused amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans just over 30 years ago (December 1987) in eastern Canada. This review covers new information since two previous reviews in 2012. Nitzschia bizertensis was subsequently discovered to be toxigenic in Tunisian waters. The known distribution of N. navis-varingica has expanded from Vietnam to Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines and Australia. Furthermore, 15 new species (and one new variety) of Pseudo-nitzschia have been discovered, bringing the total to 52. Seven new species were found to produce DA, bringing the total of toxigenic species to 26. We list all Pseudo-nitzschia species, their ability to produce DA, and show their global distribution. A consequence of the extended distribution and increased number of toxigenic species worldwide is that DA is now found more pervasively in the food web, contaminating new marine organisms (especially marine mammals), affecting their physiology and disrupting ecosystems. Recent findings highlight how zooplankton grazers can induce DA production in Pseudo-nitzschia and how bacteria interact with Pseudo-nitzschia. Since 2012, new discoveries have been reported on physiological controls of Pseudo-nitzschia growth and DA production, its sexual reproduction, and infection by an oomycete parasitoid. Many advances are the result of applying molecular approaches to discovering new species, and to understanding the population genetic structure of Pseudo-nitzschia and mechanisms used to cope with iron limitation. The availability of genomes from three Pseudo-nitzschia species, coupled with a comparative transcriptomic approach, has allowed advances in our understanding of the sexual reproduction of Pseudo-nitzschia, its signaling pathways, its interactions with bacteria, and genes involved in iron and vitamin B12 and B7 metabolism. Although there have been no new confirmed cases of ASP since 1987 because of monitoring efforts, new blooms have occurred. A massive toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom affected the entire west coast of North America during 2015–2016, and was linked to a ‘warm blob’ of ocean water. Other smaller toxic blooms occurred in the Gulf of Mexico and east coast of North America. Knowledge gaps remain, including how and why DA and its isomers are produced, the world distribution of potentially toxigenic Nitzschia species, the prevalence of DA isomers, and molecular markers to discriminate between toxigenic and non-toxigenic species and to discover sexually reproducing populations in the field.
TL;DR: Time series data suggest a shift in microalgal species composition, from dominance by diatoms to dinoflagellates after 1980s in Korea, and from di atoms to small haptophytes and cyanobacteria after 2013 in eastern Russia.
Abstract: Occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HABs) and associated fisheries damage have been continuously monitored since the 1970s along the coasts of East Asia. Fisheries damage comprises mass mortalities of fish and shellfish mainly by harmful dinoflagellates and raphidophytes (e.g., Chattonella antiqua/marina, Cochlodinium polykrikoides and Karenia mikimotoi), and contamination of algal toxins in shellfish in particular Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins by Dinophysis spp. and Paralytic Shellfish Toxins by Alexandrium spp. Shellfish mass mortalities due to Heterocapsa circularisquama in Hong Kong and western Japan, and fish kills by Karlodinium digitatum are unique incidents for this region, whereas C. antiqua/marina, C. polykrikoides and K. mikimotoi are common also in other regions. Time series data showed that the highest bloom numbers were recorded in 1980 (Japan), in 1998 (Korea) and in 2003 (China), followed by decreasing trends in these countries. These data suggest a shift in microalgal species composition, from dominance by diatoms to dinoflagellates after 1980s in Korea, and from diatoms to small haptophytes and cyanobacteria after 2013 in eastern Russia. HAB species composition and the changes were compared among countries, for better understanding on current status and trend of HAB species in East Asia.
01 Jan 2000
01 Jan 2004
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01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Of the more than 60 different species of phytoplankton that cause red tides, only four or five have been identified as toxic, and scientists prefer the term "harmful algal bloom" (or HAB).
Abstract: Many algal species form blooms, commonly referred to as "red tides," each with different impacts. Most of these blooms are harmless, but a few species of phytoplankton cause red tides that are poisonous to marine animals and to humans. Because of this, scientists prefer the term "harmful algal bloom" (or HAB). Of the more than 60 different species of phytoplankton that cause red tides, only four or five have been identified as toxic.