Other affiliations: Kalyani Government Engineering College
Bio: Arindam Bhattacharyya is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Immune system & Apoptosis. The author has an hindex of 21, co-authored 79 publications receiving 1345 citations. Previous affiliations of Arindam Bhattacharyya include Kalyani Government Engineering College.
TL;DR: The results obtained infer that the peptide from Streptomyces sp LK3 extract possesses anti- Pf activity activity, suggesting that the extracts have novel metabolites and could be considered as a potential source for drug development.
Abstract: The study was planned to screen the marine actinobacterial extract for the protease inhibitor activity and its anti- Pf activity under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Out of 100 isolates, only 3 isolates exhibited moderate to high protease inhibitor activities on trypsin, chymotrypsin and proteinase K. Based on protease inhibitor activity 3 isolates were chosen for further studies. The potential isolate was characterized by polyphasic approach and identified as Streptomyces sp LK3 (JF710608). The lead compound was identified as peptide from Streptomyces sp LK3. The double-reciprocal plot displayed inhibition mode is non-competitive and it confirms the irreversible nature of protease inhibitor. The peptide from Streptomyces sp LK3 extract showed significant anti plasmodial activity (IC50: 25.78 µg/ml). In in vivo model, the highest level of parasitemia suppression (≈45%) was observed in 600 mg/kg of the peptide. These analyses revealed no significant changes were observed in the spleen and liver tissue during 8 dpi. The results confirmed up-regulation of TGF-β and down regulation of TNF-α in tissue and serum level in PbA infected peptide treated mice compared to PbA infection. The results obtained infer that the peptide possesses anti- Pf activity activity. It suggests that the extracts have novel metabolites and could be considered as a potential source for drug development.
TL;DR: The EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 is shown as well as the prognostic value of C XCL13–CXCR5 co-expression in primary BC is demonstrated, suggesting that CxCL13-CX CR5–RANKL–Src axis may present a therapeutic target in LNM positive BC patients.
Abstract: We investigated the expression of –CXC chemokine ligand 13 (CXCL13) and its receptor –CXC chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) in 98 breast cancer (BC) patients with infiltrating duct carcinoma, out of which 56 were found lymph node metastasis (LNM) positive. Interestingly, co-expression of CXCL13 and CXCR5 showed a significant correlation with LNM. Since, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is highly associated with metastasis we investigated EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 in BC cell lines. In CXCL13-stimulated BC cells, expression of various mesenchymal markers (Vimentin, N-cadherin), EMT regulators (Snail, Slug), and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP9) was increased, whereas the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin was found to be decreased. In addition, expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL), which is known to regulate MMP9 expression via Src activation, was also significantly increased after CXCL13 stimulation. Using specific protein kinase inhibitors, we confirmed that CXCL13 stimulated EMT and MMP9 expression via RANKL–Src axis in BC cell lines. To further validate this observation, we examined gene expression patterns in primary breast tumors and detected significantly higher expression of various mesenchymal markers and regulators in CXCL13–CXCR5 co-expressing patients. Therefore, this study showed the EMT-inducing potential of CXCL13 as well as demonstrated the prognostic value of CXCL13–CXCR5 co-expression in primary BC. Moreover, CXCL13–CXCR5–RANKL–Src axis may present a therapeutic target in LNM positive BC patients.
TL;DR: The results prove that cadmium causes both inflammation and cell proliferation when applied in a low dose but proliferative changes occur independent of inflammation.
Abstract: Background Cadmium is one of the inflammation-related xenobiotics and has been regarded as a potent carcinogen. The relationship between inflammation and cell proliferation due to chronic infection has been studied, but the mechanism is not fully clear. Though the mode of cadmium toxicity is well characterized in animal cells, still it requires some further investigations. Previously we reported that cadmium induces immune cell death in Swiss albino mice. In the present study we showed that instead of inducing cell death mechanism, cadmium in low concentration triggers proliferation in mice lung cell and our results reveals that prior to the induction of proliferation it causes severe inflammation.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that cadmium promotes ROS generation, which potently initiates the cell cycle arrest at early hours and finally induces p53-dependent apoptosis at later part of the event.
Abstract: Recently, the role of cadmium (Cd) in immunosupression has gained importance. Nevertheless, the signaling pathways underlying cadmium-induced immune cell death remains largely unclear. In accordance to our previous in vivo report, and to evaluate the further details of the mechanism, we have investigated the effects of cadmium (CdCl 2 , H 2 O) on cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in splenocytes in vitro . Our results have revealed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p21 are involved in cell cycle arrest in a p53 independent manner but late hour apoptotic response was accompanied by the p53 up-regulation, loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP), down-regulation of Bcl-xl, activation of caspase-3 and release of cytochrome c (Cyt c ). However, pifithrin alfa (PFT-α), an inhibitor of p53, fails to rescue the cells from the cadmium-induced cell cycle arrest but prevents Bcl-xl down-regulation and loss of Δ ψ m , which indicates that there is an involvement of p53 in apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) can prevent cell cycle arrest and p21 up-regulation at early hours. Although it is clear that, NAC has no effect on apoptosis, p53 expression and MPT changes at late stage events. Taken together, we have demonstrated that cadmium promotes ROS generation, which potently initiates the cell cycle arrest at early hours and finally induces p53-dependent apoptosis at later part of the event.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that PQ induces ROS production and differential α-synuclein expression that promotes neuroinflammation in microglia-dependent or -independent manners, and produces different patterns of dopaminergic neurotoxicity in three different regions of mouse brain.
Abstract: Paraquat (1, 1-dimethyl-4, 4-bipyridium dichloride; PQ) causes neurotoxicity, especially dopaminergic neurotoxicity, and is a supposed risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of PQ-induced neurodegeneration are far from clear. Previous studies have shown that PQ induces neuroinflammation and dopaminergic cell loss, but the prime cause of those events is still in debate. We examined the neuropathological effects of PQ not only in substantia nigra (SN) but also in frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus of the progressive mouse (adult Swiss albino) model of PD-like neurodegeneration, using immunohistochemistry, western blots, and histological and biochemical analyses. PQ caused differential patterns of changes in cellular morphology and expression of proteins related to PD and neuroinflammation in the three regions examined (SN, FC and hippocampus). Coincident with behavioral impairment and brain-specific ROS generation, there was differential immunolocalization and decreased expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the three regions, whereas α-synuclein immunopositivity increased in hippocampus, increased in FC and decreased in SN. PQ-induced neuroinflammation was characterized by area-specific changes in localization and appearances of microglial cells with or without activation and increment in expression patterns of tumor necrosis factor-α in the three regions of mouse brain. Expression of interleukin-1β was increased in FC and hippocampus but not significantly changed in SN. The present study demonstrates that PQ induces ROS production and differential α-synuclein expression that promotes neuroinflammation in microglia-dependent or -independent manners, and produces different patterns of dopaminergic neurotoxicity in three different regions of mouse brain.
01 Jan 2011
TL;DR: Firm evidence is provided for Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ Treg cells as an indispensable cellular constituent of the normal immune system for establishing and maintaining immunologic self-tolerance and immune homeostasis.
Abstract: Despite the skepticism that once prevailed among immunologists, it is now widely accepted that the normal immune system harbors a T-cell population, called regulatory T cells (Treg cells), specialized for immune suppression. It was first shown that depletion of a T-cell subpopulation from normal rodents produced autoimmune disease. Search for a molecular marker specific for such autoimmune-preventive Treg cells has revealed that the majority, if not all, of them constitutively express the CD25 molecule as depletion of CD25+CD4+ T cells spontaneously evokes autoimmune disease in otherwise normal rodents. The expression of CD25 by Treg cells has made it possible to delineate their developmental pathways, in particular their thymic development, and establish simple in vitro assay for assessing their suppressive activity. The marker and the in vitro assay have helped to identify human Treg cells with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics. Recent efforts have shown that natural Treg cells specifically express the transcription factor Foxp3 and that mutations of the Foxp3 gene produce a variety of immunological diseases in humans and rodents. Specific expression of Foxp3 in natural Treg cells has enabled their functional and developmental characterization by genetic approach. These studies altogether have provided firm evidence for Foxp3+CD25+CD4+ Treg cells as an indispensable cellular constituent of the normal immune system for establishing and maintaining immunologic self-tolerance and immune homeostasis. Treg cells are now within the scope of clinical use to treat immunological diseases and control physiological and pathological immune responses.
TL;DR: The identification and characterization of ADAM33, a putative asthma susceptibility gene identified by positional cloning in an outbred population, should provide insights into the pathogenesis and natural history of this common disease.
Abstract: Van Eerdewegh P, Little RD, Dupuis J, et al Nature 2002;418:426–430 To identify novel genetic polymorphisms associated with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) in asthma Four hundred sixty white affected sib-pair families from the United States and the United Kingdom with current asthma A genetic linkage analysis was performed for current asthma and BHR Case-control, transmission disequilibrium, and haplotype analyses were conducted to identify the gene(s) most commonly associated with asthma Novel genes of interest were …
01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: The recent achievement of oxaliplatin for the treatment of colon cancer should not belie the imbalance between a plethora of investigated complexes and a very small number of clinically approved platinum drugs.
Abstract: Triggered by the resounding success of cisplatin, the past decades have seen tremendous efforts to produce clinically beneficial analogues. The recent achievement of oxaliplatin for the treatment of colon cancer should, however, not belie the imbalance between a plethora of investigated complexes and a very small number of clinically approved platinum drugs. Strategies opening up new avenues are increasingly being sought using complexes of metals other than platinum such as ruthenium or gallium. Based on the chemical differences between these metals, the spectrum of molecular mechanisms of action and potential indications can be broadened substantially. Other approaches focus on complexes with tumour-targeting properties, thereby maximizing the impact on cancer cells and minimizing the problem of adverse side effects, and complexes with biologically active ligands.