scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

Arthur T. Howe

Bio: Arthur T. Howe is an academic researcher from University of Leeds. The author has contributed to research in topics: Conductivity & Tetrahydrate. The author has an hindex of 17, co-authored 28 publications receiving 918 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the layered hydrate HUO2PO4 is a rapid proton conductor with a room temperature conductivity of 4 × 10−3ohm−1cm−1.

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a Grotthus-type mechanism of conduction is proposed which involves intermolecular transfer steps (hopping) and inter-parallel transfer steps in comparable numbers, the former facilitated by the high concentration of H 3 O + ions in the structure, and the latter most likely facilitated by high H-bond vacancies.

132 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, single-crystal measurements on hydrogen uranyl phosphate tetrahydrate, HUO 2 PO 4 ·4H 2 O (HUP), have confirmed that the high proton conductivity is a bulk characteristic.

76 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors measured the relaxation times in hydrogen uranyl phosphate and arsenate, which are fast proton conductors, and found that the two compounds undergo a phase transition resulting in discontinuities in T/sub 1/ and t/sub 2/ and a DTA peak.

58 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the high proton conductivity of hydrogen uranyl phosphate tetrahydrate HUO 2 PO 4 ·4H 2 O (HUP) is sufficient to enable an HUP/H x WO 3 electrochromic cell to function as fast as a cell with an acidic solution electrolyte.

47 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the proton conductivity in materials and the elements of proton conduction mechanisms are discussed with a special emphasis on proton chemistry, including structural reorganization and diffusional motion of extended moieties.
Abstract: In this review the phenomenon of proton conductivity in materials and the elements of proton conduction mechanismsproton transfer, structural reorganization and diffusional motion of extended moietiesare discussed with special emphasis on proton chemistry. This is characterized by a strong proton localization within the valence electron density of electronegative species (e.g., oxygen, nitrogen) and self-localization effects due to solvent interactions which allows for significant proton diffusivities only when assisted by the dynamics of the proton environment in Grotthuss and vehicle type mechanisms. In systems with high proton density, proton/proton interactions lead to proton ordering below first-order phase transition rather than to coherent proton transfers along extended hydrogen-bond chains as is frequently suggested in textbooks of physical chemistry. There is no indication for significant proton tunneling in fast proton conduction phenomena for which almost barrierless proton transfer is suggest...

2,039 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of polymers as gas sensors, pH sensors, ion-selective sensors, humidity sensors, biosensor devices, etc., are reviewed and discussed in this article, and current trends in sensor research and also challenges in future sensor research are discussed.

1,126 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, different methods for coating SnO2 nanocrystals with a thin layer of an insulating oxide were compared, and the best results were obtained by adding a soluble metal salt.
Abstract: Coating nanocrystalline SnO2 electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell applications with a thin layer of ZnO, TiO2, ZrO2, MgO, Al2O3, Y2O3, or other insulating oxides was found to improve dye adsorption and increase the sensitized photocurrent. The surface of the oxide coating is more basic than SnO2, which renders dye attachment by its carboxyl groups more favorable. At the same time, the photovoltage and fill factor are strongly enhanced, resulting in much better energy conversion efficiencies. This change is ascribed to inhibition of electron back transfer from SnO2 to the redox electrolyte (I3-) by the insulating oxide. The optimum coating thickness is only a few angstroms, suggesting that electron transfer from the excited dye attached to the oxide surface to the underlying SnO2 occurs by tunneling through the insulator layer. Different methods for coating SnO2 nanocrystals with a thin layer of an insulating oxide were compared. The best results were obtained by adding a soluble metal salt to the SnO2...

761 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: 1 demonstrated a combination of two of the concepts by introducing NH(4)(+) ions using the anionic framework and putting carboxyl end groups of adipic acid in a honeycomb-shaped void, showing a superprotonic conductivity of 10(-2) S cm(-1) at ambient temperature.
Abstract: A novel metal−organic framework (MOF), (NH4)2(adp)[Zn2(ox)3]·3H2O (1) was synthesized and its structure was determined. We propose three types of rational design to introduce proton carriers into MOFs. The simplest method is to introduce them directly as counterions such as NH4+, H3O+, and HSO4− into the pores of frameworks (type I). The second is to put acid groups on frameworks, the protons being provided from them (type II). The third is to incorporate acidic molecules into voids (type III). 1 demonstrated a combination of two of the concepts by introducing NH4+ ions using the anionic framework (type I) and putting carboxyl end groups of adipic acid in a honeycomb-shaped void (type III). 1 showed a superprotonic conductivity of 10−2 S cm−1 at ambient temperature, comparable to organic polymers such as Nafion, which is in practical use in fuel cells. This is the first example of an MOF to exhibit a superprotonic conductivity of 10−2 S cm−1 at ambient temperature.

592 citations