Asha L. Hegde
Other affiliations: University of Texas at Austin
Bio: Asha L. Hegde is an academic researcher from Texas State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Independent living & Hue. The author has an hindex of 6, co-authored 14 publications receiving 99 citations. Previous affiliations of Asha L. Hegde include University of Texas at Austin.
TL;DR: Generally consistent with earlier findings, women experienced greater seasonal change in mood and behavior than men, and older individuals experienced less seasonal change than younger individuals.
Abstract: The Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ) was administered to a sample of students, faculty, and staff at a large state university in central Texas. Estimated prevalence rates of winter seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and subsyndromal winter SAD (S-SAD) derived from their SPAQ responses were considerably higher than expected, given the relatively low latitude of the area. Generally consistent with earlier findings, women experienced greater seasonal change in mood and behavior than men, and older individuals experienced less seasonal change than younger individuals.
TL;DR: The results indicate that the quantitative light levels in the ILF were low and inadequate for proper function by the residents in the space when compared to the suggested recommended lighting practice for senior living (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2007).
Abstract: People above the age of 60 need three times more light than a 20-year-old to perform the same tasks. Providing high light levels with limited amount of glare in eldercare environments enables the residents to function and negotiate their living space with confidence. This study acquired quantitative measurements of light levels in two independent living facilities (ILF) as well as measured the perceptions of the residents regarding their visual environment in these facilities. The results indicate that the quantitative light levels in the ILF were low and inadequate for proper function by the residents in the space when compared to the suggested recommended lighting practice for senior living (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 2007). However, the residents rated the lighting as average to good or comfortable. The study raises several questions about the positive responses of the seniors as well as provides tips to facilities management on improving the interior lighting quality of their facilities.
TL;DR: It is suggested that a modified home environment does not necessarily contribute to an older person's perception of perceived aspects of their home environment.
Abstract: This study investigated the relationships between the “perceived aspects” of current home environment of elderly people living in rural areas and their home modification behavior. To investigate this perception, home satisfaction, perception of home capability, and home safety were used as perceived aspects of the home. Data were collected by a questionnaire. The response rate was 43.1%, with 317 eligible questionnaires. The results from this study indicate that there was no significant difference in perceived aspects of home environment between those who modified their homes and those who did not. Regardless of their current home conditions, most elderly respondents (75%) showed high home satisfaction. Results from this study suggest that a modified home environment does not necessarily contribute to an older person's perception of perceived aspects of their home environment.
TL;DR: It is necessary to continuously evaluate user needs and desires for study spaces, and what makes an ideal study space, to keep the design of academic libraries relevant to its patrons.
Abstract: The academic library is changing. No longer simply a warehouse of information, the university library is a place for students and patrons to study, collaborate, socialize, and learn through social activities. 1 This change in use reflects a paradigmatic shift from understanding the library as information repository to understanding the library as ‘place,’ ‘third space,’ and/or ‘learning commons.’ As the paradigm of the academic library changes, it transforms academic library design. 2 Because the conceptual basis of current academic library design is still changing away from traditional academic library spaces, it is necessary to continuously evaluate user needs and desires for study spaces, and what makes an ideal study space, to keep the design of academic libraries relevant to its patrons.
TL;DR: In this article, the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) was used to measure burnout and a job satisfaction survey gathered basic demographic and situational (job-related) information from practicing interior designers.
Abstract: Job turnover is often preceded by burnout, a psychological syndrome involving prolonged response to stressors on the job (Maslach & Leiter, 2008). This phenomenon is measured along a continuum ranging from job engaged to full burnout. Higher levels of burnout can result in turnover, excessive absenteeism, and numerous physical and emotional symptoms among employees. The purpose of this study was to assess levels of burnout among practicing interior designers, and identify both individual and situational factors relative to burnout. The Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) was used to measure burnout and a Job Satisfaction survey gathered basic demographic and situational (job-related) information from practicing interior designers (N = 130). The voluntary and anonymous surveys were distributed via US Mail and the response rate was 52%. Results revealed that study participants were experiencing a moderate level of burnout. However, when compared with other professions, interior designers rated highest in cynicism and second only to nurses in exhaustion, as measured by the MBI-GS. Statistically significant correlations and regressions were found between burnout and the individual factors of age and years of professional practice as well as the situational factors of workload, control, reward, and fairness. The results and implications of the study are relevant to both interior design practitioners and academics and the discussion calls upon these communities to reconsider discipline-based traditions and expectations that may exacerbate burnout to keep practitioners healthy and positively engaged in the profession.
TL;DR: The actuality of seasonal variation in mood has been documented thoroughly by both retrospective and prospective studies, and the most extreme form of this disposition, SAD appears to be a relatively common disorder.
Abstract: Objective: To review and systematize all epidemiological studies of seasonal affective disorder (SAD). Method: The relevant papers were identified by searches in Medline, Excerpta Medica, PsychLIT and other databases. The primary reports were reviewed for additional citations. The studies were classified into retrospective and prospective population surveys, surveys of patient populations and studies of seasonal variations in psychiatric illnesses other than mood disorders. Results: The prevalence estimates of SAD across 20 retrospective studies varied from 0% to 9.7%. All prospective population studies, except one, find seasonal variations in mood, depressive symptoms usually peaking in winter. SAD was more prevalent at higher northern latitudes, but the prevalence varied across ethnic groups. SAD has also been identified in children and adolescents. Seasonal exacerbations and remissions are not limited to mood disorders, it has also been found in bulimia nervosa, anxiety disorders and other psychiatric illnesses. Conclusions: The actuality of seasonal variation in mood has been documented thoroughly by both retrospective and prospective studies. In the general population, depressive symptoms peak in winter, and the most extreme form of this disposition, SAD, appears to be a relatively common disorder.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined seasonal variation in physical activity in longitudinal analyses of 580 healthy adults from Worcester, Massachusetts (the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study, 1994-1998) three 24-hour physical activity recalls administered five times during 12 months of follow-up were used to estimate household, occupational, leisure time, and total physical activity levels in metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/day.
Abstract: The authors examined seasonal variation in physical activity in longitudinal analyses of 580 healthy adults from Worcester, Massachusetts (the Seasonal Variation of Blood Cholesterol Study, 1994-1998) Three 24-hour physical activity recalls administered five times during 12 months of follow-up were used to estimate household, occupational, leisure time, and total physical activity levels in metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours/day Trigonometric models were used to estimate the peak-to-trough amplitude and phase of the peaks in activity during the year Total activity increased by 14 MET-hours/day (121 kcal/day) in men and 10 MET-hours/day (70 kcal/day) in women during the summer in comparison with winter Moderate intensity nonoccupational activity increased by 20-24 MET-hours/day in the summer During the summer, objectively measured mean physical activity increased by 51 minutes/day (95% confidence interval: 20, 82) in men and by 16 minutes/day (95% confidence interval: -12, 45) in women The authors observed complex patterns of seasonal change that varied in amplitude and phase by type and intensity of activity and by subject characteristics (ie, age, obesity, and exercise) These findings have important implications for clinical research studies examining the health effects of physical activity and for health promotion efforts designed to increase population levels of physical activity
TL;DR: The influence of latitude on prevalence seems to be small and other factors like climate, genetic vulnerability and social-cultural context can be expected to play a more important role.
Abstract: Background: The aim of the study is to investigate the relationship between the prevalence of SAD and latitude. Methods: An overview of the epidemiological literature on the prevalence of SAD is given and studies relevant for the latitudinal dependency of prevalence will be analyzed and discussed. Results: The mean prevalence of SAD is two times higher in North America compared to Europe. Over all prevalence studies, the correlation between prevalence and latitude was not significant. A significant positive correlation was found between prevalence and latitude in North America. For Europe there was a trend in the same direction. Conclusions: The influence of latitude on prevalence seems to be small and other factors like climate, genetic vulnerability and social-cultural context can be expected to play a more important role. Additional controlled studies taking these factors into account are necessary to identify their influence. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
TL;DR: Regulation of serotonin transporter density by season is a previously undescribed physiologic mechanism that has the potential to explain seasonal changes in normal and pathologic behaviors.
Abstract: Context It is a common experience in temperate zones that individuals feel happier and more energetic on bright and sunny days and many experience a decline in mood and energy during the dark winter season. Brain serotonin is involved in the regulation of physiologic functions, such as mating, feeding, energy balance, and sleep. Although these behaviors and serotonin-related conditions show a clear seasonal pattern in humans, the molecular background of seasonal changes in serotonin function is entirely unknown. The serotonin transporter is a key element in regulating intensity and spread of the serotonin signal. Objectives To detect seasonal variations in serotonin transporter binding in the living human brain and to detect correlations between serotonin transporter binding and duration of daily sunshine. Design Regional serotonin transporter binding potential values, an index of serotonin transporter density, were assessed from December 1, 1999, to December 9, 2003, in a consecutive sample of healthy volunteers. Binding potential values were related to meteorologic data. Setting Tertiary care psychiatric hospital. Participants Volunteer sample of 88 drug-naive healthy individuals. Intervention Carbon 11–labeled 3-amino-4-(2-dimethylaminomethyl-phenylsulfanyl)-benzonitrile positron emission tomography. Main Outcome Measure Regional serotonin transporter binding potential values. Results Serotonin transporter binding potential values were significantly higher in all investigated brain regions in individuals investigated in the fall and winter compared with those investigated in the spring and summer ( P = .01 to .001). Moreover, binding potential values showed negative correlations with average duration of daily sunshine in all brain regions (ρ = −0.21 to −0.39; P = .05 to Conclusions Serotonin transporter binding potential values vary throughout the year with the seasons. Since higher serotonin transporter density is associated with lower synaptic serotonin levels, regulation of serotonin transporter density by season is a previously undescribed physiologic mechanism that has the potential to explain seasonal changes in normal and pathologic behaviors.
TL;DR: The authors present a comprehensive overview of the literature on BLT in mood disorders and discusses the pathophysiology and clinical specifiers of SAD, which can be seen as a model disorder for chronobiological disturbances and the mechanism of action of BLT.
Abstract: Bright-light therapy (BLT) is established as the treatment of choice for seasonal affective disorder/winter type (SAD). In the last two decades, the use of BLT has expanded beyond SAD: there is evidence for efficacy in chronic depression, antepartum depression, premenstrual depression, bipolar depression and disturbances of the sleep-wake cycle. Data on the usefulness of BLT in non-seasonal depression are promising; however, further systematic studies are still warranted. In this review, the authors present a comprehensive overview of the literature on BLT in mood disorders. The first part elucidates the neurobiology of circadian and seasonal adaptive mechanisms focusing on the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the indolamines melatonin and serotonin, and the chronobiology of mood disorders. The SCN is the primary oscillator in humans. Indolamines are known to transduce light signals into cells and organisms since early in evolution, and their role in signalling change of season is still preserved in humans: melatonin is synthesized primarily in the pineal gland and is the central hormone for internal clock circuitries. The melatonin precursor serotonin is known to modulate many behaviours that vary with season. The second part discusses the pathophysiology and clinical specifiers of SAD, which can be seen as a model disorder for chronobiological disturbances and the mechanism of action of BLT. In the third part, the mode of action, application, efficacy, tolerability and safety of BLT in SAD and other mood disorders are explored.