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Author

Ashik Paul

Other affiliations: Cachar College
Bio: Ashik Paul is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: TEC & Geomagnetic storm. The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 63 publications receiving 942 citations. Previous affiliations of Ashik Paul include Cachar College.


Papers
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TL;DR: The features of EPS from various sources are presented with a view to establish their role as central elements in bioremediation of heavy metals.
Abstract: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of microbial origin are a complex mixture of biopolymers comprising polysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids, uronic acids, humic substances, lipids, etc. Bacterial secretions, shedding of cell surface materials, cell lysates and adsorption of organic constituents from the environment result in EPS formation in a wide variety of free-living bacteria as well as microbial aggregates like biofilms, bioflocs and biogranules. Irrespective of origin, EPS may be loosely attached to the cell surface or bacteria may be embedded in EPS. Compositional variation exists amongst EPS extracted from pure bacterial cultures and heterogeneous microbial communities which are regulated by the organic and inorganic constituents of the microenvironment. Functionally, EPS aid in cell-to-cell aggregation, adhesion to substratum, formation of flocs, protection from dessication and resistance to harmful exogenous materials. In addition, exopolymers serve as biosorbing agents by accumulating nutrients from the surrounding environment and also play a crucial role in biosorption of heavy metals. Being polyanionic in nature, EPS forms complexes with metal cations resulting in metal immobilization within the exopolymeric matrix. These complexes generally result from electrostatic interactions between the metal ligands and negatively charged components of biopolymers. Moreover, enzymatic activities in EPS also assist detoxification of heavy metals by transformation and subsequent precipitation in the polymeric mass. Although the core mechanism for metal binding and / or transformation using microbial exopolymer remains identical, the existence and complexity of EPS from pure bacterial cultures, biofilms, biogranules and activated sludge systems differ significantly, which in turn affects the EPS-metal interactions. This paper presents the features of EPS from various sources with a view to establish their role as central elements in bioremediation of heavy metals.

360 citations

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TL;DR: Fungi belonging to Aspergillus, Mortierella, Paecilomyces, Penicillium, Pythium, Rhizopus and Trichoderma, isolated from serpentine soil of Andaman (India) were screened for cobalt-resistance and Freundlich adsorption isotherm appropriately describes Mortiereella SPS 403 biomass as an efficient Co(II)-biosorbent.

99 citations

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TL;DR: The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the other schemes, in terms of the average precision, the average recall and the total average precision/recall.
Abstract: In this study, an attempt has been made to study an image retrieval technique based on the combination of Haar wavelet transformation using lifting scheme and the colour histogram (CH) called lifting wavelet-based colour histogram. The colour feature is described by the CH, which is translation and rotation invariant. The Haar wavelet transformation is used to extract the texture features and the local characteristics of an image, to increase the accuracy of the retrieval system. The lifting scheme reduces the processing time to retrieve images. The experimental results indicate that the proposed technique outperforms the other schemes, in terms of the average precision, the average recall and the total average precision/recall.

48 citations

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TL;DR: The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the L1 (1.6 GHz) transmission from GPS and GLONASS satellites has been recorded at Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; 32°N magnetic dip, 17.35°N dip latitude) since 1999 by a stand-alone coarse acquisition (C/A) code Ashtec receiver.
Abstract: [1] The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the L1 (1.6 GHz) transmission from the GPS and GLONASS satellites has been recorded at Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic; 32°N magnetic dip, 17.35°N dip latitude) since 1999 by a stand-alone coarse acquisition (C/A) code Ashtec receiver. The receiver usually tracks 10–15 satellites, sampling different sections of the ionosphere at different look angles from the station. Simultaneously, L-band (1.5 GHz) signals from geostationary INMARSAT (65°E) (350 km subionospheric point: 21.08°N, 86.59°E geographic; 28.74°N magnetic dip, 15.33°N dip latitude) and VHF (244 MHz) from FLEETSATCOM (73°E) (350 km subionospheric point: 21.10°N, 87.25°E geographic; 28.65°N magnetic dip, 15.28°N dip latitude) are also recorded. Calcutta is situated under the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly in the Indian longitude sector. The SNR of many GPS and GLONASS links, particularly in the southern sky and near overhead, has been found to scintillate frequently in between the local sunset and midnight hours. Scintillations of satellite signals near overhead are caused by irregularities in electron density distribution in an environment of high ambient ionization occurring near the crest of the equatorial anomaly. For the links at lower elevation angles in the southern sky, scintillations occur when satellites are viewed “end-on” through the field-aligned plasma bubbles. During periods of intense scintillations, in the high sunspot number years 1999–2002, it has frequently been observed that seven or eight GPS/GLONASS satellite links out of 15 may simultaneously show scintillations in excess of 10 dB. This paper presents an example of the above when the position determined with GPS shows fluctuations to the extent of 11 m in latitude and 8 m in longitude under such an environment.

44 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the diurnal maximum and integrated value (integrated from the time of onset of plasma influx to off-equatorial latitudes till local sunset) of the strength of the electrojet in the Indian longitude sector to calculate the vertical drift of the F-layer over the magnetic equator for the period August through October 2000.
Abstract: . The irregularities in the electron density distribution of the ionosphere over the equatorial region frequently disrupt space-based communication and navigation links by causing severe amplitude and phase scintillations of signals. Development of a specification and forecast system for scintillations is needed in view of the increased reliance on space-based communication and navigation systems, which are vulnerable to ionospheric scintillations. It has been suggested in recent years that a developed equatorial anomaly in the afternoon hours, with a steep gradient of the F-region ionization or Total Electron Content (TEC) in the region between the crest and the trough, may be taken as a precursor to scintillations on transionospheric links. Latitudinal gradient of TEC measured using Faraday Rotation technique from LEO NOAA 12/14 transmissions during the afternoon hours at Calcutta shows a highly significant association with L-band scintillations recorded on the INMARSAT link, also from Calcutta, during the equinoxes, August through October 2000, and February through April 2001. The daytime equatorial electrojet is believed to control the development of the equatorial anomaly and plays a crucial role in the subsequent development of F-region irregularities in the post-sunset hours. The diurnal maximum and integrated value (integrated from the time of onset of plasma influx to off-equatorial latitudes till local sunset) of the strength of the electrojet in the Indian longitude sector shows a significant association with post-sunset L-band scintillations recorded at Calcutta during the two equinoxes mentioned earlier. Generation of equatorial irregularities over the magnetic equator in the post-sunset hours is intimately related to the variation of the height of the F-layer around sunset. Ionosonde data from Kodaikanal, a station situated close to the magnetic equator, has been utilized to calculate the vertical drift of the F-layer over the magnetic equator for the period August through October 2000. The post-sunset F-region height rise over the magnetic equator shows a remarkable correspondence with the occurrence of scintillations at Calcutta located near the northern crest of the equatorial anomaly. Existence of a flat-topped ionization distribution over the magnetic equator around sunset has been suggested as a possible indication of occurrence of post-sunset scintillations. Width of the latitudinal distribution of ionization obtained from DMSP satellite shows some correspondence with post-sunset L-band scintillations. During the period of observation of the present study (August through October 2000, and February through April 2001), it has been observed that although the probability of occurrence of scintillations is high on days with flat-topped ion density variation over the equator, there are cases when no scintillations were observed even when a pronounced flat top variation was recorded.

43 citations


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7,335 citations

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TL;DR: A summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation and a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.
Abstract: Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) produced by microorganisms are a complex mixture of biopolymers primarily consisting of polysaccharides, as well as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and humic substances. EPS make up the intercellular space of microbial aggregates and form the structure and architecture of the biofilm matrix. The key functions of EPS comprise the mediation of the initial attachment of cells to different substrata and protection against environmental stress and dehydration. The aim of this review is to present a summary of the current status of the research into the role of EPS in bacterial attachment followed by biofilm formation. The latter has a profound impact on an array of biomedical, biotechnology and industrial fields including pharmaceutical and surgical applications, food engineering, bioremediation and biohydrometallurgy. The diverse structural variations of EPS produced by bacteria of different taxonomic lineages, together with examples of biotechnological applications, are discussed. Finally, a range of novel techniques that can be used in studies involving biofilm-specific polysaccharides is discussed.

937 citations

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TL;DR: This review marginalizes various studies conducted so far about EPS nature-production-recovery, properties, environmental applications and moreover, critically examines future research needs and advanced application prospective of the EPS.

709 citations

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TL;DR: A review of biosorption research can be found in this paper, where a range of subjects are covered, including the initial history, raw materials, mechanisms, instrumental tools, process factors, modification and immobilization methods, recovery and regeneration, continuous processes, commercial application, and modeling studies.
Abstract: The discovery and further development of biosorption phenomena provide a basis for a whole new technology aimed at the removal of various pollutants or the recovery of valuable resources from aqueous systems. Today, biosorption is one of the main components of environmental and bioresource technology. Since the status of scientific development of a technology can be reflected through analyses of the literatures pertaining to it, in this review, we qualitatively examine almost all aspects of biosorption research. A range of subjects are covered, including the initial history, raw materials, mechanisms, instrumental tools, process factors, modification and immobilization methods, recovery and regeneration, continuous processes, commercial application, and modeling studies of biosorption. Finally, we summarized the important considerations of the current research on biosorption, as well as the suggestions for its future directions. We believe that this review will prove to be useful for scientists and engineers in the performance of their research into biosorption.

580 citations

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TL;DR: Catastrophe of heavy metal pollution in environment is discussed in terms of remediation through bacterial Exopolysaccharide through polymer in wide range of bacterial cells and their EPS in diverse forms have been critically analyzed.

523 citations