Other affiliations: Indian Institutes of Technology, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Azim Premji University
Bio: Ashish Singh is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Inequality & Caste. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 54 publication(s) receiving 681 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Ashish Singh include Indian Institutes of Technology & Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research.
Topics: Inequality, Caste, Rural area, Income inequality metrics, Population
TL;DR: This is the first study of its kind which has investigated the relationship between prospectively assessed pregnancy intendedness and early childhood mortality in rural India and provides additional and more conclusive evidence that unwanted births are disadvantaged in terms of maternal and child health outcomes.
Abstract: To investigate the relationship between pregnancy intendedness and utilization of recommended prenatal care for mothers and vaccinations for children against six vaccine preventable diseases in rural India using a prospective dataset. To examine the association between pregnancy intention and neonatal and infant mortality in rural India. The study is based upon a prospective follow-up survey of a cohort selected from the National Family Health Survey 1998-1999, carried out in 2002-2003 in rural areas of four Indian states of Bihar, Jharkhand, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. Data for 2108 births for which pregnancy intendedness was assessed prospectively was analyzed using bivariate analysis, logistic regressions and discrete-time survival analysis. Mothers reporting unwanted births were 2.32 (95 % CI: 1.54-3.48) times as likely as mothers reporting wanted births to receive inadequate prenatal care. Moreover, unwanted births were 1.38 (95 % CI: 1.01-1.87) times as likely as wanted births to receive inadequate childhood vaccinations. Likewise, births that were identified as mistimed/unwanted had 83 % higher risk of neonatal mortality compared to wanted births. The association between pregnancy intendedness and infant mortality was only marginally significant. This is the first study of its kind which has investigated the relationship between prospectively assessed pregnancy intendedness and early childhood mortality in rural India. The study provides additional and more conclusive evidence that unwanted births are disadvantaged in terms of maternal and child health outcomes. Findings argue for enhanced focus on family planning to reduce the high prevalence of unintended pregnancy in rural India.
09 May 2012-BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
TL;DR: Findings do reveal that children of mothers who were advised on ‘keeping baby warm (kangaroo care) after birth’ during their antenatal sessions were significantly less likely to die during the neonatal period compared to those children whose mothers were not advised about the same.
Abstract: Background 39% of neonatal deaths in India occur on the first day of life, and 57% during the first three days of births. However, the association between postnatal care (PNC) for newborns and neonatal mortality has not hitherto been examined. The paper aims to examine the association of PNC for newborns with neonatal mortality in India.
01 Mar 2012-Review of Income and Wealth
TL;DR: In this article, the authors associate inequality of opportunities with outcome differences that can be accounted by predetermined circumstances which lie beyond the control of an individual, such as parental education, parental occupation, caste, religion, and place of birth, and find evidence that the parental education specific opportunity share of overall earnings and consumption expenditure is largest in urban India, but caste and geographical region also play an equally important role when rural India is considered.
Abstract: The paper associates inequality of opportunities with outcome differences that can be accounted by predetermined circumstances which lie beyond the control of an individual, such as parental education, parental occupation, caste, religion, and place of birth. The non-parametric estimates using parental education as a measure of circumstances reveal that the opportunity share of earnings inequality in 2004–05 was 11–19 percent for urban India and 5–8 percent for rural India. The same figures for consumption expenditure inequality are 10–19 percent for urban India and 5–9 percent for rural India. The overall opportunity share estimates (parametric) of earnings inequality due to circumstances, including caste, religion, region, parental education, and parental occupation, vary from 18 to 26 percent for urban India, and from 16 to 21 percent for rural India. The overall opportunity share estimates for consumption expenditure inequality are close to the earnings inequality figures for both urban and rural areas. The analysis further finds evidence that the parental education specific opportunity share of overall earnings (and consumption expenditure) inequality is largest in urban India, but caste and geographical region also play an equally important role when rural India is considered.
TL;DR: The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children; and though the Overall inequality in Immunization status declined in all the regions, the changes in G WHI were mixed.
Abstract: Background and Objectives Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI) in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI
28 Mar 2014-Food and Nutrition Bulletin
TL;DR: There is a significant association between food insecurity and malnutrition among children in Nepal and among women, food insecurity is associated with underweight but not with overweight (BMI ≥ 25.0 kg/m2).
Abstract: BackgroundInformation on the association between household food insecurity and nutritional status of children and women based on a nationally representative sample is not available from Nepal.ObjectiveTo examine the association between food insecurity and nutritional status of children and married women in Nepal using data from the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey.MethodsThe Household Food Insecurity Access Scale was used to assess food insecurity in the 2011 Nepal Demographic and Health Survey. We used body mass index (BMI) to assess the nutritional status of married women, and stunting, wasting, and underweight to assess the nutritional status of children under 5 years of age. Binary logistic regression and multinomial logistic regression were performed to examine the associations.ResultsIn severely food-insecure households, 51% of children were stunted and 40% were underweight; 27% of married women had a BMI below 18.5 kg/m2; children were 1.50 (95% CI, 1.15 to 1.97) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1...
01 Jun 2009
TL;DR: The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) as mentioned in this paper was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts.
Abstract: The United Nations Children's Fund, or UNICEF, was originally created to provide relief for children in countries devastated by the destruction of World War II. After 1950, UNICEF turned to focus on general programs for the improvement of children's welfare worldwide, and in 1965, it was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace for its humanitarian efforts. The organization concentrates on areas in which relatively small expenditures can have a significant impact on the lives of the most disadvantaged children in developing countries, such as the prevention and treatment of disease, child healthcare, malnutrition, illiteracy, and other welfare services.
Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust1, University of Warwick2, University of Helsinki3, Oslo University Hospital4, University of Antwerp5, Ghent University6, Innsbruck Medical University7, Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research8, Southmead Hospital9, The Catholic University of America10, Imperial College Healthcare11, Royal United Hospital12, Imperial College London13, University of Bern14
01 Oct 2015-Resuscitation
TL;DR: This chapter contains guidance on the techniques used during the initial resuscitation of an adult cardiac arrest victim and the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED).
Abstract: This chapter contains guidance on the techniques used during the initial resuscitation of an adult cardiac arrest victim. This includes basic life support (BLS: airway, breathing and circulation support without the use of equipment other than a protective device) and the use of an automated external defibrillator (AED). Simple techniques used in the management of choking (foreign body airway obstruction) are also included. Guidelines for the use of manual defibrillators and starting in-hospital resuscitation are found in the section Advanced Life Support Chapter.
01 Nov 2010-Pediatrics
TL;DR: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, “Peripartum SuctioningNRP-011A, NRP-012A”).
Abstract: Note From the Writing Group: Throughout this article, the reader will notice combinations of superscripted letters and numbers (eg, “Peripartum SuctioningNRP-011A, NRP-012A”). These callouts are hyperlinked to evidence-basedworksheets, whichwere used in the development of this article. An appendix of worksheets, applicable to this article, is located at the end of the text. The worksheets are available in PDF format and are open access.
03 Nov 2015-Circulation
TL;DR: The following guidelines are a summary of the evidence presented in the 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmo nary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR).
Abstract: The following guidelines are a summary of the evidence presented in the 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmo nary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations (CoSTR).1,2 Throughout the online version of this publication, live links are provided so the reader can connect directly to systematic reviews on the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) Scientific Evidence Evaluation and Review System (SEERS) website. These links are indicated by a combination of letters and numbers (eg, NRP 787). We encourage readers to use the links and review the evidence and appendices. These guidelines apply primarily to newly born infants transitioning from intrauterine to extrauterine life. The recommendations are also applicable to neonates who have completed newborn transition and require resuscitation during the first weeks after birth.3 Practitioners who resuscitate infants at birth or at any time during the initial hospitalization should consider following these guidelines. For purposes of these guidelines, the terms newborn and neonate apply to any infant during the initial hospitalization. The term newly born applies specifically to an infant at the time of birth.3 Immediately after birth, infants who are breathing and crying may undergo delayed cord clamping (see Umbilical Cord Management section). However, until more evidence is available, infants who are not breathing or crying should have the cord clamped (unless part of a delayed cord clamping research protocol), so that resuscitation measures can commence promptly. Approximately 10% of newborns require some assistance to begin breathing at birth. Less than 1% require extensive resuscitation measures,4 such as cardiac compressions and medications. Although most newly born infants successfully transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life without special help, because of the large total number of births, a significant number will require some degree of resuscitation.3 Newly born infants who do not …
20 Oct 2015-Circulation
TL;DR: The vast majority of newborn infants do not require intervention to make these transitional changes, but the large number of births worldwide means that many infants require some assistance to achieve cardiorespiratory stability each year.
Abstract: ### Newborn Transition The transition from intrauterine to extrauterine life that occurs at the time of birth requires timely anatomic and physiologic adjustments to achieve the conversion from placental gas exchange to pulmonary respiration. This transition is brought about by initiation of air breathing and cessation of the placental circulation. Air breathing initiates marked relaxation of pulmonary vascular resistance, with considerable increase in pulmonary blood flow and increased return of now-well-oxygenated blood to the left atrium and left ventricle, as well as increased left ventricular output. Removal of the low-resistance placental circuit will increase systemic vascular resistance and blood pressure and reduce right-to-left shunting across the ductus arteriosus. The systemic organs must equally and quickly adjust to the dramatic increase in blood pressure and oxygen exposure. Similarly, intrauterine thermostability must be replaced by neonatal thermoregulation with its inherent increase in oxygen consumption. Approximately 85% of babies born at term will initiate spontaneous respirations within 10 to 30 seconds of birth, an additional 10% will respond during drying and stimulation, approximately 3% will initiate respirations after positive-pressure ventilation (PPV), 2% will be intubated to support respiratory function, and 0.1% will require chest compressions and/or epinephrine to achieve this transition.1–3 Although the vast majority of newborn infants do not require intervention to make these transitional changes, the large number of births worldwide means that many infants require some assistance to achieve cardiorespiratory stability each year. Newly born infants who are breathing or crying and have good tone immediately after birth must be dried and kept warm so as to avoid hypothermia. These actions can be provided with the baby lying on the mother’s chest and should not require separation of mother and baby. This does not preclude the need for clinical assessment of the baby. …