Astrid M. G. Poorthuis
Other affiliations: University of Amsterdam
Bio: Astrid M. G. Poorthuis is an academic researcher from Utrecht University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Attribution bias & Attribution. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 27 publications receiving 337 citations. Previous affiliations of Astrid M. G. Poorthuis include University of Amsterdam.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a literature review on the role of school in adolescents' identity development from different research fields and to provide schools and teachers with insights into how adolescents’ identity development can be supported.
Abstract: Schools can play an important role in adolescents’ identity development. To date, research on the role of school in adolescents’ identity development is scattered across research fields that employ different theoretical perspectives on identity. The aim of this literature review was to integrate the findings on the role of school in adolescents’ identity development from different research fields and to provide schools and teachers with insights into how adolescents’ identity development can be supported. Using constant comparative analysis, 111 studies were analyzed. We included articles on personal and social identity and on school-related identity dimensions. Three groups of studies emerged. First, studies on how schools and teachers unintentionally impact adolescents’ identity showed that, at school, messages may unintentionally be communicated to adolescents concerning who they should or can be through differentiation and selection, teaching strategies, teacher expectations, and peer norms. Second, studies on how schools and teachers can intentionally support adolescents’ identity development showed that different types of explorative learning experiences can be organized to support adolescents’ identity development: experiences aimed at exploring new identity positions (in-breadth exploration), further specifying already existing self-understandings (in-depth exploration), and reflecting on self-understandings (reflective exploration). The third group suggests that explorative learning experiences must be meaningful and situated in a supportive classroom climate in order to foster adolescents’ identity development. Together, the existing studies suggest that schools and teachers are often unaware of the many different ways in which they may significantly impact adolescents’ identity development.
TL;DR: It is found that disapproved children's self-esteem recovery was dependent on the extent to which they subsequently viewed positive feedback from popular judges, and this findings support sociometer theory.
Abstract: This experiment tested whether peer approval and disapproval experiences can cause immediate change in children's state self-esteem. Children's narcissistic traits and evaluator perceived popularity were examined as potential moderators. A total of 333 preadolescents (M = 10.8 years) completed personal profiles on the Internet that were ostensibly judged by a jury consisting of popular and unpopular peers. Participants randomly received negative, neutral, or positive feedback from the jury. Next, they could examine the feedback that each individual judge gave them. As expected, peer disapproval decreased self-esteem, especially in children high in narcissism. In contrast, peer approval increased self-esteem. Moreover, disapproved children's self-esteem recovery was dependent on the extent to which they subsequently viewed positive feedback from popular judges. These findings support sociometer theory.
TL;DR: In early childhood, bullies and bully‐victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior, according to Bayesian model selection.
Abstract: Some children who bully others are also victimized themselves (“bully-victims”) whereas others are not victimized themselves (“bullies”). These subgroups have been shown to differ in their social functioning as early as in kindergarten. What is less clear are the motives that underlie the bullying behavior of young bullies and bully-victims. The present study examined whether bullies have proactive motives for aggression and anticipate to feel happy after victimizing others, whereas bully-victims have reactive motives for aggression, poor theory of mind skills, and attribute hostile intent to others. This “distinct processes hypothesis” was contrasted with the “shared processes hypothesis,” predicting that bullies and bully-victims do not differ on these psychological processes. Children (n = 283, age 4–9) were classified as bully, bully-victim, or noninvolved using peer-nominations. Theory of mind, hostile intent attributions, and happy victimizer emotions were assessed using standard vignettes and false-belief tasks; reactive and proactive motives were assessed using teacher-reports. We tested our hypotheses using Bayesian model selection, enabling us to directly compare the distinct processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on different psychological processes) against the shared processes model (predicting that bullies and bully-victims deviate from noninvolved children on all psychological processes alike). Overall, the shared processes model received more support than the distinct processes model. These results suggest that in early childhood, bullies and bully-victims have shared, rather than distinct psychological processes underlying their bullying behavior.
TL;DR: In this paper, a 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students' (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit and found that lower report card grades predicted lower emotional and behavioral engagement in spring, when controlling for prior levels of engagement.
Abstract: Receiving report card grades is psychologically salient to most students and can elicit a range of affective reactions. A 3-wave longitudinal study examined how grades shape students’ (N = 375; M age at Wave 1 = 12.6 years) school engagement through the affective reactions they elicit. Emotional and behavioral engagement were measured at the start of secondary school and 6 months later. Halfway through this period, students’ positive and negative affective reactions to their 1st report card in secondary school were assessed. As expected, lower report card grades predicted lower emotional and behavioral engagement in spring, when controlling for prior levels of engagement. These links were mediated by students’ affective reactions. Boys and children who perceived the performance norms in their class to be high were more affectively reactive to their grades, which resulted in a stronger indirect effect of grades via negative affect on emotional engagement. Complementing the traditional view that grades are consequences of school engagement, the current findings suggest that grades function also as antecedents of school engagement.
TL;DR: Results showed that prosocial tendencies are associated with higher perceived friendship quality among nonpopular children, but not among popular children, suggesting that even if they lack prosocial qualities, popular children are still able to hold good-quality friendships.
TL;DR: Thorndike as discussed by the authors argues that the relative immaturity of the sciences dealing with man is continually stressed, but it is claimed that they provide a body of facts and principles which are "far above zero knowledge" and that even now they are capable of affording valuable guidance in the shaping of public policy.
Abstract: “WHAT can men do, what do they do, and what do they want to do ?”—these are the uestions that Prof. Thorndike seeks to answer in a very comprehensive and elaborate treatise. His undertaking is inspired by the belief that man has the possibility of almost complete control of his fate if only he will be guided by science, and that his failures are attributable to ignorance or folly. The main approach is through biological psychology, but all the social sciences are appealed to and utilized in an effort to deal with the human problem as a whole. The relative immaturity of the sciences dealing with man is continually stressed, but it is claimed that they provide a body of facts and principles which are “far above zero knowledge”, and that even now they are capable of affording valuable guidance in the shaping of public policy. Human Nature and the Social Order By E. L. Thorndike. Pp. xx + 1020. (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1940.) 18s. net.
TL;DR: Structural equation modeling results indicated that an increased need to belong and an increase need for popularity were associated with an increased use of Facebook, and these relationships were mediated by FoMO.
TL;DR: This work proposes a unified theoretical framework for the neuroscientific study of general resilience mechanisms and posits that a positive (non-negative) appraisal style is the key mechanism that protects against the detrimental effects of stress and mediates the effects of other known resilience factors.
Abstract: The well-replicated observation that many people maintain mental health despite exposure to severe psychological or physical adversity has ignited interest in the mechanisms that protect against stress-related mental illness. Focusing on resilience rather than pathophysiology in many ways represents a paradigm shift in clinical-psychological and psychiatric research that has great potential for the development of new prevention and treatment strategies. More recently, research into resilience also arrived in the neurobiological community, posing nontrivial questions about ecological validity and translatability. Drawing on concepts and findings from transdiagnostic psychiatry, emotion research, and behavioral and cognitive neuroscience, we propose a unified theoretical framework for the neuroscientific study of general resilience mechanisms. The framework is applicable to both animal and human research and supports the design and interpretation of translational studies. The theory emphasizes the causal role of stimulus appraisal (evaluation) processes in the generation of emotional responses, including responses to potential stressors. On this basis, it posits that a positive (non-negative) appraisal style is the key mechanism that protects against the detrimental effects of stress and mediates the effects of other known resilience factors. Appraisal style is shaped by three classes of cognitive processes-positive situation classification, reappraisal, and interference inhibition-that can be investigated at the neural level. Prospects for the future development of resilience research are discussed.