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Aswini Madhavan

Bio: Aswini Madhavan is an academic researcher from PSG College of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Likert scale & Sample size determination. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 9 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This conceptual work explains the demand for automatic coding techniques to evaluate pain and documents some evidence of techniques that act as an alternative approach for objectively determining pain in children.
Abstract: Pain is an unpleasant subjective experience. At present, clinicians are using self-report or pain scales to recognise and monitor pain in children. However, these techniques are not efficient to observe the pain in children having cognitive disorder and also require highly skilled observers to measure pain. Using these techniques it is also difficult to choose the analgesic drug dosages to the patients after surgery. Thus, this conceptual work explains the demand for automatic coding techniques to evaluate pain and also it documents some evidence of techniques that act as an alternative approach for objectively determining pain in children. In this review, some good indicators of pain in children are explained in detail; they are facial expressions from an RGB image, thermal image and also feature from well proven physiological signals such as electrocardiogram, skin conductance, body temperature, surgical pleth index, pupillary reflex dilation, analgesia nociception index, photoplethysmography, perfusion index etc.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Older participants, females, participants who had a high level of education, and non-smokers were found to have higher knowledge regarding THS and its impact on health and persistence in the environment.
Abstract: Background: Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a recently discovered health hazard which has become a public concern over the recent years due to its wide distribution in indoor environment and significant adverse biological and health ill effects. The “four R’s” that define the concept of THS include tobacco chemicals (some toxic) that remain, react, re-emit and/or are re-suspended long after active smoking ends. Harmful effects of active smoking and second-hand smoke were widely studied, however, only few studies were conducted on THS and its health effects. The aim of the study is to assess the beliefs about THS among the general population in Bangalore city, IndiaMethods: This cross-sectional study used a structured multiple-choice questionnaire which incorporated the participant’s characteristics and the beliefs about THS (BATHS) scale. A sample size of 206 participants was obtained after study duration of 2 months. One-way ANOVA, student T test, generalized linear model and Pearson’s correlation were used for statistical analysis in SPSS version 22 software.Results: The test results showed a significant association between age (in years), gender, highest level of education, and smoking status with overall mean BATHS scale and subscales score. Pearson correlation analysis revealed the BATHS scale and its subscales scores to be interdependent.Conclusions: Older participants, females, participants who had a high level of education, and non-smokers were found to have higher knowledge regarding THS and its impact on health and persistence in the environment.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a systematic review aimed at examining the cognitive effects of unemployment among middle-aged women was conducted, finding that paid work seemed to have a significant positive impact on cognitive abilities.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although further testing and refinement is needed, this survey instrument provides an initial and conceptually unique tool for assessing the knowledge, attitude and perception of dentists towards transgender patients.
Abstract: Background Transgender community faces immense amount of adversities including less acceptance from family and friends, lack of employment opportunities, verbal and physical abuse, isolation and rejection. A lack of knowledge about the biology and health needs of transgender community and a generalized aversive attitude against them are a few reasons for this discrimination. In spite of their increased health needs, they face discrimination from health care professionals including dentists. Currently, there are no psychosocial tool for examining the knowledge,Objectives attitude, and perceptions of dentists towards transgender patients. Accordingly, a tool was developed and tested to provide an instrument for measuring the same. A thorough literature review and expert panel analysis of theMethods questions was done followed by pretesting of the tool. The responses were marked on a likert scale .Reliability and factor analysis were performed using SPSS software. The final factor analysis loaded as two factors with nine itemsResults which were defined as emotional and cognitive perception. The present item pool was named as dentist perception questionnaire which can be used to assess the perception of dentists towards transgender patients. Conclusions Although further testing and refinement is needed, this survey instrument provides an initial and conceptually unique tool for assessing the knowledge, attitude and perception of dentists towards transgender patients.

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Journal ArticleDOI
08 Jan 2020-Sensors
TL;DR: Different sensor-based approaches applied to the objective evaluation of non-oncological chronic pain are reviewed, showing a diversified set of alternatives that can be exploited to address the multidimensional nature of pain.
Abstract: Non-oncologic chronic pain is a common high-morbidity impairment worldwide and acknowledged as a condition with significant incidence on quality of life. Pain intensity is largely perceived as a subjective experience, what makes challenging its objective measurement. However, the physiological traces of pain make possible its correlation with vital signs, such as heart rate variability, skin conductance, electromyogram, etc., or health performance metrics derived from daily activity monitoring or facial expressions, which can be acquired with diverse sensor technologies and multisensory approaches. As the assessment and management of pain are essential issues for a wide range of clinical disorders and treatments, this paper reviews different sensor-based approaches applied to the objective evaluation of non-oncological chronic pain. The space of available technologies and resources aimed at pain assessment represent a diversified set of alternatives that can be exploited to address the multidimensional nature of pain.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated acute nociceptive pain recognition system was proposed to objectively measure nocICEptive pain using physiological signals and a hybrid Deep Learning network and utilizes the BioVid Heat Pain database.
Abstract: Postoperative pain management has become a major medical and nursing challenge. Nowadays, hospitals have taken initiatives to measure acute pain using self-report measures like the Visual Analogue Scale and Numeric Pain Intensity Scale. But these methods are inaccurate as it depends on patient’s input. Therefore, there is a requirement for an objective, quantitative method to monitor pain continuously. In this work, an automated acute nociceptive pain recognition system was proposed to objectively measure nociceptive pain using physiological signals and a hybrid Deep Learning network. The hybrid deep learning network constitutes a shallow CNN network that extracts the essential information of the pain from the physiological signals and the extracted feature matrix is fed to the LSTM network for feature concatenation. This process realizes the mapping of nociceptive pain from input data to detection. This work utilizes the BioVid Heat Pain database. A Unimodal hybrid CNN_LSTM network (using ECG signals) has achieved 68.70 percent, 62.61 percent, 67.86 percent, and 75.21 percent of classification accuracy for classification events (BL1 Vs PA1, BL1 Vs PA2, BL1 Vs PA3, and BL1 Vs PA4). Similarly, for classification events (BL1 Vs PA1, BL1 Vs PA2, BL1 Vs PA3, and BL1 Vs PA4), the unimodal hybrid CNN_LSTM network (using EDA signals) achieved 85.65 percent, 74.47 percent, 80.80 percent, and 80.17 percent of classification accuracy. Finally, for classification events (BL1 Vs PA1, BL1 Vs PA2, BL1 Vs PA3, and BL1 Vs PA4), the CNN_LSTM multimodal hybrid network (using both ECG and EDA signals) achieved 93.91 percent, 86.97 percent, 90.75 percent, and 94.12 percent of the classification accuracy, respectively.

23 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Some pain assessment methods show good and consistent results and have high technological maturity; however, using them as pain assessment for persons with ID is uncommon.
Abstract: Background and Objective. The most frequently used methods for assessing pain are self-reports and observation. However, physiological methods could improve accuracy and reliability for those with communicative difficulties. This review’s objective is to analyze methods used to physiologically assess pain, to rank them by invasiveness per method and vulnerability per subject group, and to assess their technological maturity. Databases and Data Treatment. Six international databases were searched for review papers between 2007 and 2019. Inclusion criteria were as follows: at least one physiological method for acute or chronic pain in humans; languages were as follows: English, French, Dutch, German, and Spanish. Quality of reviews was assessed using the CASP checklist. Results. The methods’ heart rate variability and electroencephalogram show clear and consistent results as acute pain assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging can measure chronic pain. Ordered by invasiveness and vulnerability, a trend shows that the invasive methods are used more with less vulnerable subjects. Only instruments used for skin conductance and automatic facial recognition have a lower-than-average technological maturity. Conclusions. Some pain assessment methods show good and consistent results and have high technological maturity; however, using them as pain assessment for persons with ID is uncommon. Since this addition can ameliorate caregiving, more research of assessment methods should occur.

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
18 Feb 2020
TL;DR: To explore the educational needs of nurses on children's pain management, a study of nurses in the Netherlands found that nurses with a post-graduate degree in education and training are more likely to have a positive impact on patients' pain management.
Abstract: Aim To explore the educational needs of nurses on children's pain management. Design A descriptive qualitative study. Methods Individual and group interviews were conducted among 28 nurses and four nurse managers at four hospitals in the Ashanti region of Ghana. The recorded interviews were later transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed based on a conceptual interest in the educational needs on paediatric pain management. Results Nurses were acquainted with pain assessment of children who can verbally communicate. They mainly used drugs in treating pain and were familiar with the use of some non-pharmacological interventions. Notwithstanding, they desired to know more about pain assessment for children with non-functional speech. Additionally, they were interested in learning more about both drug and nondrug pain relief methods for children. The sampled nurses and nurse managers indicated diverse preferences on the nature of the paediatric pain educational programme based on their personal choices and working dynamics.

8 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The use of EVGs in pediatric patients with chemotherapy-induced mucositis has a considerable analgesic effect, which is associated physiologically with an increase in parasympathetic vagal tone despite lower consumption of morphine.
Abstract: Background: Patients with secondary pain due to mucositis after chemotherapy require treatment with morphine. Use of electronic video games (EVGs) has been shown to be an effective method of analgesia in other clinical settings. Objective: The main objective of this study was to assess the association between the use of EVGs and the intensity of pain caused by chemotherapy-induced mucositis in pediatric patients with cancer. The secondary objective was to assess the association between changes in pain intensity and sympathetic-parasympathetic balance in this sample of pediatric patients. Methods: Clinical records were compared between the day prior to the use of EVGs and the day after the use of EVGs. The variables were variations in pupil size measured using the AlgiScan video pupilometer (IDMed, Marseille, France), heart rate variability measured using the Analgesia Nociception Index (ANI) monitor (Mdoloris Medical Systems, Loos, France), intensity of pain measured using the Numerical Rating Scale (score 0-10), and self-administered morphine pump parameters. Results: Twenty patients (11 girls and nine boys; mean age 11.5 years, SD 4.5 years; mean weight 41.5 kg, SD 20.7 kg) who met all the inclusion criteria were recruited. EVGs were played for a mean of 2.3 (SD 1.3) hours per day, resulting in statistically significant changes. After playing EVGs, there was significantly lower daily morphine use (before vs after playing EVGs: 35.9 vs 28.6 µg/kg/day, P=.003), lower demand for additional pain relief medication (17 vs 9.6 boluses in 24 hours, P=.001), lower scores of incidental pain intensity (7.7 vs 5.4, P=.001), lower scores of resting pain (4.8 vs 3.2, P=.01), and higher basal parasympathetic tone as measured using the ANI monitor (61.8 vs 71.9, P=.009). No variation in pupil size was observed with the use of EVGs. Conclusions: The use of EVGs in pediatric patients with chemotherapy-induced mucositis has a considerable analgesic effect, which is associated physiologically with an increase in parasympathetic vagal tone despite lower consumption of morphine.

5 citations