Author

# Atul Kumar

Other affiliations: Indian Institutes of Technology

Bio: Atul Kumar is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology, Jodhpur. The author has contributed to research in topics: Quantum entanglement & Qubit. The author has an hindex of 5, co-authored 24 publications receiving 80 citations. Previous affiliations of Atul Kumar include Indian Institutes of Technology.

##### Papers

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TL;DR: A general weighted directed graph framework for investigating properties of a large class of quantum states which are defined by three types of Laplacian matrices associated with such graphs, which is generalize the standard framework of defining density matrices from simple connected graphs todensity matrices using both combinatorial and signless Laplacan matrices.

Abstract: Representing graphs as quantum states is becoming an increasingly important approach to study entanglement of mixed states, alternate to the standard linear algebraic density matrix-based approach of study. In this paper, we propose a general weighted directed graph framework for investigating properties of a large class of quantum states which are defined by three types of Laplacian matrices associated with such graphs. We generalize the standard framework of defining density matrices from simple connected graphs to density matrices using both combinatorial and signless Laplacian matrices associated with weighted directed graphs with complex edge weights and with/without self-loops. We also introduce a new notion of Laplacian matrix, which we call signed Laplacian matrix associated with such graphs. We produce necessary and/or sufficient conditions for such graphs to correspond to pure and mixed quantum states. Using these criteria, we finally determine the graphs whose corresponding density matrices represent entangled pure states which are well known and important for quantum computation applications. We observe that all these entangled pure states share a common combinatorial structure.

14 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a general weighted directed graph framework is proposed for investigating properties of a large class of quantum states which are defined by three types of Laplacian matrices associated with such graphs.

Abstract: Representing graphs as quantum states is becoming an increasingly important approach to study entanglement of mixed states, alternate to the standard linear algebraic density matrix-based approach of study. In this paper, we propose a general weighted directed graph framework for investigating properties of a large class of quantum states which are defined by three types of Laplacian matrices associated with such graphs. We generalize the standard framework of defining density matrices from simple connected graphs to density matrices using both combinatorial and signless Laplacian matrices associated with weighted directed graphs with complex edge weights and with/without self-loops. We also introduce a new notion of Laplacian matrix, which we call signed Laplacian matrix associated with such graphs. We produce necessary and/or sufficient conditions for such graphs to correspond to pure and mixed quantum states. Using these criteria, we finally determine the graphs whose corresponding density matrices represent entangled pure states which are well known and important for quantum computation applications. We observe that all these entangled pure states share a common combinatorial structure.

12 citations

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TL;DR: The results show that for a set of three- and four-qubit GHZ class states, maximal nonlocality does not coincide with maximum entanglement for a given noise parameter and a certain range of weak measurement parameter.

Abstract: We analyse robustness of nonlocal correlation in multiqubit entangled states—three- and four-qubit GHZ class and three-qubit W class—useful for quantum information and computation, under noisy conditions and weak measurements. For this, we use a Bell-type inequality whose violation is considered as a signature for confirming the presence of genuine nonlocal correlations between the qubits. In order to demonstrate the effects of noise and weak measurements, an analytical relation is established between the maximum expectation value of three and four-qubit Svetlichny operators for the systems under study, noise parameter and strengths of weak measurements. Our results show that for a set of three- and four-qubit GHZ class states, maximal nonlocality does not coincide with maximum entanglement for a given noise parameter and a certain range of weak measurement parameter. Our analysis further shows an excellent agreement between the analytical and numerical results.

11 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors established an analytical relation between the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality and weak measurement strengths under noisy conditions.

Abstract: Abstract We establish an analytical relation between the Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (Bell-CHSH) inequality and weak measurement strengths under noisy conditions. We show that the analytical results obtained in this article are of utmost importance for proposing a new class of two-qubit mixed states for quantum information processing. Our analysis further shows that the states proposed here are better resources for quantum information in comparison to other two-qubit mixed entangled states.

8 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a generalized form of optimal teleportation witness is proposed to demonstrate their importance in experimental detection of the larger set of entangled states useful for teleportation in higher dimensional systems, and a teleportation witness can be used to characterize mixed state entanglement using Schmidt numbers.

Abstract: We propose a generalized form of optimal teleportation witness to demonstrate their importance in experimental detection of the larger set of entangled states useful for teleportation in higher dimensional systems The interesting properties of our witness reveal that teleportation witness can be used to characterize mixed state entanglement using Schmidt numbers Our results show that while every teleportation witness is also a entanglement witness, the converse is not true Also, we show that a hermitian operator is a teleportation witness iff it is a decomposable entanglement witness In addition, we analyze the practical significance of our study by decomposing our teleportation witness in terms of Pauli and Gell-Mann matrices, which are experimentally measurable quantities

6 citations

##### Cited by

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28,685 citations

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01 Jan 2001

TL;DR: This chapter discusses Decision-Theoretic Foundations, Game Theory, Rationality, and Intelligence, and the Decision-Analytic Approach to Games, which aims to clarify the role of rationality in decision-making.

Abstract: Preface 1. Decision-Theoretic Foundations 1.1 Game Theory, Rationality, and Intelligence 1.2 Basic Concepts of Decision Theory 1.3 Axioms 1.4 The Expected-Utility Maximization Theorem 1.5 Equivalent Representations 1.6 Bayesian Conditional-Probability Systems 1.7 Limitations of the Bayesian Model 1.8 Domination 1.9 Proofs of the Domination Theorems Exercises 2. Basic Models 2.1 Games in Extensive Form 2.2 Strategic Form and the Normal Representation 2.3 Equivalence of Strategic-Form Games 2.4 Reduced Normal Representations 2.5 Elimination of Dominated Strategies 2.6 Multiagent Representations 2.7 Common Knowledge 2.8 Bayesian Games 2.9 Modeling Games with Incomplete Information Exercises 3. Equilibria of Strategic-Form Games 3.1 Domination and Ratonalizability 3.2 Nash Equilibrium 3.3 Computing Nash Equilibria 3.4 Significance of Nash Equilibria 3.5 The Focal-Point Effect 3.6 The Decision-Analytic Approach to Games 3.7 Evolution. Resistance. and Risk Dominance 3.8 Two-Person Zero-Sum Games 3.9 Bayesian Equilibria 3.10 Purification of Randomized Strategies in Equilibria 3.11 Auctions 3.12 Proof of Existence of Equilibrium 3.13 Infinite Strategy Sets Exercises 4. Sequential Equilibria of Extensive-Form Games 4.1 Mixed Strategies and Behavioral Strategies 4.2 Equilibria in Behavioral Strategies 4.3 Sequential Rationality at Information States with Positive Probability 4.4 Consistent Beliefs and Sequential Rationality at All Information States 4.5 Computing Sequential Equilibria 4.6 Subgame-Perfect Equilibria 4.7 Games with Perfect Information 4.8 Adding Chance Events with Small Probability 4.9 Forward Induction 4.10 Voting and Binary Agendas 4.11 Technical Proofs Exercises 5. Refinements of Equilibrium in Strategic Form 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Perfect Equilibria 5.3 Existence of Perfect and Sequential Equilibria 5.4 Proper Equilibria 5.5 Persistent Equilibria 5.6 Stable Sets 01 Equilibria 5.7 Generic Properties 5.8 Conclusions Exercises 6. Games with Communication 6.1 Contracts and Correlated Strategies 6.2 Correlated Equilibria 6.3 Bayesian Games with Communication 6.4 Bayesian Collective-Choice Problems and Bayesian Bargaining Problems 6.5 Trading Problems with Linear Utility 6.6 General Participation Constraints for Bayesian Games with Contracts 6.7 Sender-Receiver Games 6.8 Acceptable and Predominant Correlated Equilibria 6.9 Communication in Extensive-Form and Multistage Games Exercises Bibliographic Note 7. Repeated Games 7.1 The Repeated Prisoners Dilemma 7.2 A General Model of Repeated Garnet 7.3 Stationary Equilibria of Repeated Games with Complete State Information and Discounting 7.4 Repeated Games with Standard Information: Examples 7.5 General Feasibility Theorems for Standard Repeated Games 7.6 Finitely Repeated Games and the Role of Initial Doubt 7.7 Imperfect Observability of Moves 7.8 Repeated Wines in Large Decentralized Groups 7.9 Repeated Games with Incomplete Information 7.10 Continuous Time 7.11 Evolutionary Simulation of Repeated Games Exercises 8. Bargaining and Cooperation in Two-Person Games 8.1 Noncooperative Foundations of Cooperative Game Theory 8.2 Two-Person Bargaining Problems and the Nash Bargaining Solution 8.3 Interpersonal Comparisons of Weighted Utility 8.4 Transferable Utility 8.5 Rational Threats 8.6 Other Bargaining Solutions 8.7 An Alternating-Offer Bargaining Game 8.8 An Alternating-Offer Game with Incomplete Information 8.9 A Discrete Alternating-Offer Game 8.10 Renegotiation Exercises 9. Coalitions in Cooperative Games 9.1 Introduction to Coalitional Analysis 9.2 Characteristic Functions with Transferable Utility 9.3 The Core 9.4 The Shapkey Value 9.5 Values with Cooperation Structures 9.6 Other Solution Concepts 9.7 Colational Games with Nontransferable Utility 9.8 Cores without Transferable Utility 9.9 Values without Transferable Utility Exercises Bibliographic Note 10. Cooperation under Uncertainty 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Concepts of Efficiency 10.3 An Example 10.4 Ex Post Inefficiency and Subsequent Oilers 10.5 Computing Incentive-Efficient Mechanisms 10.6 Inscrutability and Durability 10.7 Mechanism Selection by an Informed Principal 10.8 Neutral Bargaining Solutions 10.9 Dynamic Matching Processes with Incomplete Information Exercises Bibliography Index

3,569 citations

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11 Jan 2018

TL;DR: Bigler Conservation of Momentum Unit: Momentum MA Curriculum Frameworks (2016): HS-PS2-2 MA curriculum as discussed by the authors 2.5 Mastery Objective(s): (Students will be able to...) Solve problems involving collisions in which momentum is conserved, with or without an external impulse.

Abstract: Physics 1 Mr. Bigler Conservation of Momentum Unit: Momentum MA Curriculum Frameworks (2016): HS-PS2-2 MA Curriculum Frameworks (2006): 2.5 Mastery Objective(s): (Students will be able to...) Solve problems involving collisions in which momentum is conserved, with or without an external impulse. Success Criteria: Masses and velocities are correctly identified for each object, both before and after the collision. Variables are correctly identified and substituted correctly into the correct part of the equation. Algebra is correct and rounding to appropriate number of significant figures is reasonable. Tier 2 Vocabulary: momentum, collision Language Objectives: Explain what happens before, during, and after a collision from the point of view of one of the objects participating in the collision.

464 citations

01 Jan 2006

TL;DR: An algorithm is presented able to show that there exists a unique equilibrium statex∞ ∈ [x0] which is asymptotically stable and provides a set[x] (subset of[x0]) which is included in the attraction domain of x∞.

Abstract: Consider a given dynamical system, described by ẋ = f(x) (wheref is a nonlinear function) and [x0] a subset ofR. We present an algorithm, based on interval analysis, able to show that there exists a unique equilibrium statex∞ ∈ [x0] which is asymptotically stable. The effective method also provides a set[x] (subset of[x0]) which is included in the attraction domain of x∞.

348 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the power and limitations of quantum entanglement in the context of cooperative games of incomplete information, and established limits on the probability with which quantum strategies can win restricted types of nonlocal games.

Abstract: This paper investigates the powers and limitations of quantum entanglement in the context of cooperative games of incomplete information. We give several examples of such nonlocal games where strategies that make use of entanglement outperform all possible classical strategies. One implication of these examples is that entanglement can profoundly affect the soundness property of two-prover interactive proof systems. We then establish limits on the probability with which strategies making use of entanglement can win restricted types of nonlocal games. These upper bounds may be regarded as generalizations of Tsirelson-type inequalities, which place bounds on the extent to which quantum information can allow for the violation of Bell inequalities. We also investigate the amount of entanglement required by optimal and nearly optimal quantum strategies for some games.

186 citations