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Avery Poole

Bio: Avery Poole is an academic researcher from Australia and New Zealand School of Government. The author has contributed to research in topics: Southeast asian & Democracy. The author has an hindex of 4, co-authored 19 publications receiving 60 citations. Previous affiliations of Avery Poole include University of Melbourne & University of British Columbia.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR) as mentioned in this paper was the first human rights body established by the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 2009.
Abstract: The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) established its first human rights body in 2009: the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission on Human Rights (AICHR). Given the traditional interpretations of ASEAN norms such as sovereignty, non-interference, equality and independence, this was a curious development. In particular, the norms of sovereignty and "non-interference in the internal affairs of one another" have been central to the code of conduct among ASEAN member states since the organization was established in 1967, and are reiterated in ASEAN agreements and declarations. (1) The non-interference norm means that domestic governance issues, including member states' human rights records, traditionally have been "off the table" in official ASEAN dialogue. It also means that member governments have refrained from publicly criticizing each other's actions. Moreover, only five of the ten member states have national human rights bodies (with varying mandates and degrees of independence from their respective governments). (2) Why, then, did ASEAN create a regional human rights body? The references to human rights and the creation of a human rights body raise the question of whether traditional interpretations of ASEAN norms are under challenge. The case study also raises a more fundamental question: why and how do norms emerge and evolve among states in a regional institutional context? This puzzle has implications for the study of regional organizations. ASEAN is a particularly interesting case in this regard because of its environment of "normative contestation". Norms are dynamic and evolve over time, and there may be tensions between norms in a regional institutional environment. Moreover, member states have diverse understandings of ASEAN norms. This article takes a consciously Constructivist approach in its recognition of ideational factors and sociological dynamics in international relations. This article traces the negotiations leading to the adoption of the ASEAN Charter, focusing on the processes through which ten member states with significantly diverse identities, interests and practices accepted references to human rights as "principles" and "purposes" of ASEAN, and agreed to create a human rights body. After a period of debate, negotiation and drafting from January to November 2007, ASEAN member states agreed to make a normative statement about human rights in the Charter. In this article, a "normative statement" represents rhetorical adoption of a norm in an official text, even if that norm has not been "internalized". In contrast, the term "normative standard" is used to denote the common understanding of a "norm": a "standard of appropriate behaviour for actors with a given identity". (3) The article traces the processes through which ideas are initially proposed and advanced, and eventually emerge in agreed-upon text. As such, it provides a case study of the emergence and evolution of norms in a regional institutional context. This article argues that regional norms are shaped by competing perceptions of legitimacy. Legitimacy refers here to the social judgements of an entity as appropriate, proper or desirable, within a particular institutional environment. Member states' interpretations of the legitimacy of ASEAN and its norms as perceived by those outside the region--external regional legitimacy--were crucial in shaping the decision to establish a regional human rights body. In particular, the international outrage over the Myanmar regime's crackdown on protesting monks in September 2007 brought ASEAN's legitimacy concerns into sharp relief. ASEAN officials were concerned about the impact of this event, and of Myanmar's membership generally, on ASEAN's reputation and credibility. They believed that creating a human rights body was an important mechanism to improve the legitimacy of ASEAN and its norms, as perceived by extra-regional actors. Thus, member states--even those who generally resist increased interference in internal affairs, and those with poor human rights records--accepted the need to adopt references in the Charter to provide a role for ASEAN vis-a-vis human rights. …

17 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2015
TL;DR: Indonesian foreign policy has changed substantially since the fall of Suharto in 1998 as discussed by the authors, and the government has tried to improve Indonesia's international image, and to enhance its role in Southeast Asia and in the world.
Abstract: Indonesian foreign policy has changed substantially since the fall of Suharto in 1998. Early post-Suharto governments were preoccupied with the business of democratic transition—establishing democratic institutions, withdrawing the military from politics, and resisting the various threats to reform. In more recent years, however, foreign policy has become a higher priority; the government has tried to improve Indonesia’s international image, and to enhance its role in Southeast Asia and in the world. Its foreign policy goals emphasize peace, prosperity and stability—in both the immediate region and globally—and Indonesia’s role in pursuing these goals. What explains the evolution of Indonesia’s foreign policy?

16 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated the extent to which China's and Singapore's power of example influenced consolidated democracies in terms that the latter wanting to replicate some political practices or even norms in these non-democratic regimes.
Abstract: The majority of today’s authoritarian regimes have little hope of promoting autocracy beyond their own borders, let alone to consolidated democratic countries. However, China and Singapore are two prominent examples of non-democratic countries whose soft power arsenals have given them some global appeal beyond that enjoyed by most authoritarian regimes. But to what extent has China’s and Singapore’s power of example influenced consolidated democracies in terms that the latter wanting to replicate some political practices or even norms in these non-democratic regimes? In this article, we engage recent works to examine this question in relation to how Australians perceive the political example offered by China and Singapore. Focusing our analysis on several prominent polls conducted recently by the Lowy Institute for International Policy, we suggest that at present there is little evidence of a causal impact of the rise of authoritarian powerhouses such as China and Singapore on how Australians view democracy at home. Through these case studies, this article sheds some light on the theoretical as well as practical questions about the inherent impediments of authoritarian diffusion in consolidated democracies.

8 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 2018

7 citations

DOI
01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a table of contents and a list of tables, figures, and acronyms for each of the three types of acronymyms, as well as acknowledgements.
Abstract: ......................................................................................................................................... ii Preface ........................................................................................................................................... iii Table of contents .......................................................................................................................... iv List of tables................................................................................................................................. vii List of figures .............................................................................................................................. viii List of acronyms ........................................................................................................................... ix Acknowledgements .................................................................................................................... xiii Chapter

6 citations


Cited by
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01 May 2009
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a systematic overview of key existing early warning response mechanisms and analyse to what extent and under what conditions these mechanisms might be a useful peace and security promotion tool for regional organizations.
Abstract: This paper aims to present a systematic overview of key existing early warning response mechanisms and to analyse to what extent and under what conditions these mechanisms might be a useful peace and security promotion tool for regional organisations. It analyses the strengths and weaknesses of existing EWR mechanisms and the experience of regional organisations in implementing them, as well as examining why some regional organisations have failed to establish such mechanisms.

49 citations

01 Apr 2014
TL;DR: The Taylor System as mentioned in this paper was developed as a system for increasing productivity in industry, and its principles have been applied to all kinds of large-scale enterprises, including operations with departments and agencies of the federal government.
Abstract: This brief essay by the founder of scientific management has served for nearly a century as a primer for administrators and for students of managerial techniques. Although scientific management was developed primarily as a system for increasing productivity in industry, its principles have been applied to all kinds of large-scale enterprises, including operations with departments and agencies of the federal government. It is in this volume that Frederick Winslow Taylor gave the theory of scientific management its clearest airing. Born in 1856, Taylor began work at age eighteen as an apprentice to a pattern-maker and as a machinist. A few years later he joined the Midvale Steel Company as a laborer, and in eight years rose to chief engineer. During this time he developed and tested what he called the "task system," which became known as the Taylor System and eventually as scientific management. He made careful experiments to determine the best way of performing each operation and the amount of time it required, analyzing the materials, tools, and work sequence, and establishing a clear division of labor between management and workers. His experiments laid the groundwork for the principles that are expounded in this essay, which was first published in 1911.

33 citations