Bio: Awatef Hamed is an academic researcher from University of Cincinnati. The author has contributed to research in topics: Turbine blade & Turbine. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 168 publications receiving 2286 citations. Previous affiliations of Awatef Hamed include Glenn Research Center & NASA Headquarters.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A review of erosion and deposition research in turbomachines and the associated degradation in engine performance caused by particulate matter ingestion is presented in this paper, along with a review of the application of models using these data to calculate surface erosion.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of erosion and deposition research in turbomachines and the associated degradation in engine performance caused by particulate matter ingestion Parameters affecting surface material losses as a result of erosion and development of experimental and analytical approaches to predict flowpath erosion and deposition are discussed Tests results that quantify the effects of temperature, impact particle composition, impact velocity and angle, and surface material composition are reviewed along with particle restitution data (ratios of rebound to impact velocities and angles) Development and application of models using these data to calculate surface erosion in turbomachinery are described These models predict particle trajectories in turbomachinery passages to determine impact rates, impact velocities, impact angles and uses the experimentally-obtained erosion data to calculate material losses Literature on the effects of erosion on turbomachine performance and life is surveyed Mechanisms of particle delivery and attachment upon arrival at turbomachine flowpath surfaces are also discussed along with experiential models that have been developed to predict surface deposit buildup Delivery to turbine surfaces can occur as a result of inertial flight, as for erosion, but also through transport mechanisms involving turbulence, Brownian diffusion, and thermophoresis The particle size range, where each of these mechanisms is dominant for delivery to surfaces, is described The history and experience of developing models that use these mechanisms to quantify particle delivery rates to turbine flow path surfaces is discussed, along with the use of sticking fraction data to determine the amount of material retained on the surfaces after delivery and the resulting deposit buildup rates Finally, factors that control whether extreme rates of deposition can occur in turbomachinery are described
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of a combined experimental and computational research program to investigate turbine vane and blade material surface deterioration caused by solid particle impacts are presented, which indicate that both erosion and surface roughness increase with impact angle and particle size.
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a combined experimental and computational research program to investigate turbine vane and blade material surface deterioration caused by solid particle impacts. Tests are conducted in the erosion wind tunnel for coated and uncoated blade materials at various impact conditions. Surface roughness measurements obtained prior and subsequent to the erosion tests are used to characterize the change in roughness caused by erosion. Numerical simulations for the three-dimensional flow field and particle trajectories through a low-pressure gas turbine are employed to determine the particle impact conditions with stator vanes and rotor blades using experimentally based particle restitution models. Experimental results are presented for the measured blade material/coating erosion and surface roughness. The measurements indicate that both erosion and surface roughness increase with impact angle and particle size. Computational results are presented for the particle trajectories through the first stage of a low-pressure turbine of a high bypass turbofan engine. The trajectories indicate that the particles impact the vane pressure surface and the aft part of the suction surface. The impacts reduce the particle momentum through the stator but increase it through the rotor. Vane and blade surface erosion patterns are predicted based on the computed trajectories and the experimentally measured blade coating erosion characteristics.
TL;DR: In this paper, the aerodynamic effects of alloys in contact with coal particles or coal ash are modeled as an integral part of the erosion test parameters and the results from the alloys studied (aluminum, stainless steel and titanium) are reported.
Abstract: Alloys in contact with coal particles or coal ash are exposed to erosion. The problem of predicting erosion is very complex. The present paper describes he test facility which is designed in such a way that the aerodynamic effects are an integral part of the erosion test parameters. Some results from the alloys studied (aluminum, stainless steel and titanium) in this investigation are reported.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review and assess the data base for shock boundary-layer interaction that is pertinent to the flow prediction in supersonic inlets and identify specific areas related to shock wave/boundary layer interaction bleed, for flow separation control.
Abstract: The performance of supersonic inlets is strongly affected by the boundary-layer development over its internal surfaces. Boundary-layer bleed is used to suppress separation and to provide the desired inlet performance. The gain in pressure recovery and stability is accompanied, however, with a loss in mass flow and an increase in drag that must be minimized by optimizing the amount of bleed and bleed configuration. The purpose of this work is to review and assess the data base for shock boundary-layer interaction that is pertinent to the flow prediction in supersonic inlets. The first part of the review concerns mixed compression supersonic inlets and their bleed system performance at design and off-design conditions. Based on the assessment of this data, specific areas related to shock wave/boundary-layer interaction bleed, for flow-separation control, are identified, the last part of the review addresses this phenomena in various twoand three-dimensional flow configurations. The effect of bleed in the interaction zone is especially emphasized.
••06 Jan 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the authors performed a 3-dimensional supersonic turbulent flow simulation over an open L/D = 5 cavity at free-stream Mach number of 1.19.
Abstract: Detached Eddy Simulations are performed for unsteady three-dimensional supersonic turbulent flow over an open L/D = 5 cavity at free-stream Mach number of 1.19. Numerical results are obtained from the explicit solution and Shear-Stress-Transport based simulations using the 3 rd order Roe scheme. Computational results are presented for the unsteady vortex and shock structures. The acoustic response of the cavity is presented in the form of pressure fluctuations and sound pressure level spectra. The computational results are compared to existing experimental data and to results obtained from twodimensional Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes with algebraic turbulence model.
TL;DR: This review discusses compelling examples, noting the visual and quantitative success of DES and its principal weakness is its response to ambiguous grids, in which the wall-parallel grid spacing is of the order of the boundary-layer thickness.
Abstract: Detached-eddy simulation (DES) was first proposed in 1997 and first used in 1999, so its full history can be surveyed. A DES community has formed, with adepts and critics, as well as new branches. The initial motivation of high–Reynolds number, massively separated flows remains, for which DES is convincingly more capable presently than either unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) or large-eddy simulation (LES). This review discusses compelling examples, noting the visual and quantitative success of DES. Its principal weakness is its response to ambiguous grids, in which the wall-parallel grid spacing is of the order of the boundary-layer thickness. In some situations, DES on a given grid is then less accurate than RANS on the same grid or DES on a coarser grid. Partial remedies have been found, yet dealing with thickening boundary layers and shallow separation bubbles is a central challenge. The nonmonotonic response of DES to grid refinement is disturbing to most observers, as is the absence of...
TL;DR: A hierarchy of computational approaches that range from semi-empirical schemes that estimate the noise sources using mean-flow and turbulence statistics, to high-fidelity unsteady flow simulations that resolve the sound generation process by direct application of the fundamental conservation principles is discussed in this paper.
Abstract: Computational approaches are being developed to study a range of problems in aeroacoustics. These aeroacoustic problems may be classified based on the physical processes responsible for the sound radiation, and range from linear problems of radiation, refraction, and scattering in known base flows or by solid bodies, to sound generation by turbulence. In this article, we focus mainly on the challenges and successes associated with numerically simulating sound generation by turbulent flows. We discuss a hierarchy of computational approaches that range from semi-empirical schemes that estimate the noise sources using mean-flow and turbulence statistics, to high-fidelity unsteady flow simulations that resolve the sound generation process by direct application of the fundamental conservation principles. We stress that high-fidelity methods such as Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) have their merits in helping to unravel the flow physics and the mechanisms of sound generation. They also provide rich databases for modeling activities that will ultimately be needed to improve existing predictive capabilities. Spatial and temporal discretization schemes that are well-suited for aeroacoustic calculations are analyzed, including the effects of artificial dispersion and dissipation on uniform and nonuniform grids. We stress the importance of the resolving power of the discretization as well as computational efficiency of the overall scheme. Boundary conditions to treat the flow of disturbances in and out of the computational domain, as well as methods to mimic anechoic domain extension are discussed. Test cases on some benchmark problems are included to provide a realistic assessment of several boundary condition treatments. Finally, highlights of recent progress are given using selected model problems. These include subsonic cavity noise and jet noise. In the end, the current challenges in aeroacoustic modeling and in simulation algorithms are revisited with a look toward the future developments.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of recent advances in computational approaches for two-phase flow motion of solid particles, liquid particles, and gas bubbles is reviewed in the context of engineering calculations.
Abstract: Recent advances in computational approaches for two-phase flow motion of solid particles, liquid particles, and gas bubbles are reviewed in the context of engineering calculations. The surrounding fluid is assumed to behave in a continuum and the dispersed-fluid is assumed to be dilute such that particle–particle interactions and two-way coupling effects can be ignored. The key process considered herein is momentum transfer to the particles with emphasis on turbulent diffusion. Computational approaches are classified by their particular treatment of the continuous-phase (surrounding liquid or gas) and of the dispersed-phase (solid particles, droplets, or bubbles). The most appropriate point-volume descriptions for interphase transfer of momentum are described based on current research and experimental data. Modern Lagrangian and Eulerian treatments of the dispersed-phase motion are then considered for predicting a variety of particle–fluid physical phenomenon. Finally, the “tools” (computational techniques) are summarized based on the “job” (prediction of a particular set of dispersed-phase properties) and the “cost” (required computational resources).
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a synthesis of the hazards of desert dust, including accelerated soil erosion in agricultural zones, air pollution caused by desert aerosols via their physical, chemical and biological properties, transport accidents caused by poor visibility during desert dust events, and impacts on electricity generation and distribution.
Abstract: Dust storms originate in many of the world’s drylands and frequently present hazards to human society, both within the drylands themselves but also outside drylands due to long-range transport of aeolian sediments. Major sources of desert dust include the Sahara, the Middle East, central and eastern Asia, and parts of Australia, but dust-raising occurs all across the global drylands and, on occasion, beyond. Dust storms occur throughout the year and they vary in frequency and intensity over a number of timescales. Long-range transport of desert dust typically takes place along seasonal transport paths. Desert dust hazards are here reviewed according to the three phases of the wind erosion system: where dust is entrained, during the transport phase, and on deposition. This paper presents a synthesis of these hazards. It draws on empirical examples in physical geography, medical geology and geomorphology to discuss case studies from all over the world and in various fields. These include accelerated soil erosion in agricultural zones – where dust storms represent a severe form of accelerated soil erosion – the health effects of air pollution caused by desert aerosols via their physical, chemical and biological properties, transport accidents caused by poor visibility during desert dust events, and impacts on electricity generation and distribution. Given the importance of desert dust as a hazard to human societies, it is surprising to note that there have been relatively few attempts to assess their impact in economic terms. Existing studies in this regard are also reviewed, but the wide range of impacts discussed in this paper indicates that desert dust storms deserve more attention in this respect.