Author

# Ayan Mukhopadhyay

Other affiliations: Centre national de la recherche scientifique, University of Crete, École Polytechnique ...read more

Bio: Ayan Mukhopadhyay is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Tensor & Flow (mathematics). The author has an hindex of 16, co-authored 59 publication(s) receiving 714 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Ayan Mukhopadhyay include Centre national de la recherche scientifique & University of Crete.

##### Papers

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TL;DR: The Lanczos-Lovelock Lagrangians as mentioned in this paper are a subset of these in which the curvature tensor is a homogeneous function of the curvatures tensor.

Abstract: Einstein-Hilbert (EH) action can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (``holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either can be used to extract information about the other. The surface term can also be interpreted as the entropy of the horizon in a wide class of spacetimes. Since EH action is likely to just the first term in the derivative expansion of an effective theory, it is interesting to ask whether these features continue to hold for more general gravitational actions. We provide a comprehensive analysis of Lagrangians of the form $\sqrt{\ensuremath{-}g}L=\sqrt{\ensuremath{-}g}Q_{a}{}^{bcd}R^{a}{}_{bcd}$, in which $Q_{a}{}^{bcd}$ is a tensor with the symmetries of the curvature tensor, made from metric and curvature tensor and satisfies the condition ${\ensuremath{
abla}}_{c}Q_{a}{}^{bcd}=0$, and show that they share these features. The Lanczos-Lovelock Lagrangians are a subset of these in which $Q_{a}{}^{bcd}$ is a homogeneous function of the curvature tensor. They are all holographic, in a specific sense of the term, and---in all these cases---the surface term can be interpreted as the horizon entropy. The thermodynamics route to gravity, in which the field equations are interpreted as $TdS=dE+pdV$, seems to have a greater degree of validity than the field equations of Einstein gravity itself. The results suggest that the holographic feature of EH action could also serve as a new symmetry principle in constraining the semiclassical corrections to Einstein gravity. The implications are discussed.

116 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a semi-holographic model for the out-of-equilibrium dynamics during the partonic stages of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision was developed.

Abstract: We develop a semi-holographic model for the out-of-equilibrium dynamics during the partonic stages of an ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collision. The model combines a weakly-coupled hard sector, involving gluon modes with energy and momenta of the order of the saturation momentum and relatively large occupation numbers, with a strongly-coupled soft sector, which physically represents the soft gluons radiated by the hard partons. The hard sector is described by perturbative QCD, more precisely, by its semi-classical approximation (the classical Yang-Mills equations) which becomes appropriate when the occupation numbers are large. The soft sector is described by a marginally deformed conformal field theory, which in turn admits a holographic description in terms of classical Einstein’s equations in AdS
5 with a minimally coupled massless ‘dilaton’. The model involve two free parameters which characterize the gauge-invariant couplings between the hard and soft sectors. Via these couplings, the hard modes provide dynamical sources for the gravitational equations at the boundary of AdS
5 and feel the feedback of the latter as additional soft sources in the classical Yang-Mills equations. Importantly, the initial conditions for this coupled dynamics are fully determined by the hard sector alone, i.e. by perturbative QCD, and are conveniently given by the color glass condensate (CGC) effective theory. We also develop a new semi-holographic picture of jets in the QGP by attaching a non-Abelian charge to the endpoint of the trailing string in AdS
5 representing a heavy quark. This leads to modified Nambu-Goto equations for the string which govern the (collisional and radiative) energy loss by the heavy quark towards both hard and soft modes.

39 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors study asymptotically slowly varying perturbations of the AdS black brane in Einstein's gravity with a negative cosmological constant.

Abstract: We study asymptotically slowly varying perturbations of the AdS black brane in Einstein's gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We allow both the induced metric and the Brown-York stress tensor at a given radial cut-off slice to fluctuate. These fluctuations, which determine the radial evolution of the metric, are parametrized in terms of boundary data. We observe that the renormalized energy-momentum tensor at any radial slice takes the standard hydrodynamic form which is relativistically covariant with respect to the induced metric. The RG flow of the fluid takes the form of field redefinitions of the boundary hydrodynamic variables. To show this, up to first order in the derivative expansion, we only need to investigate the radial flow of the boundary data and do not need to impose constraints on them. Imposing the constraints gives unforced nonlinear hydrodynamic equations at any radial slice. Along the way we make a careful study of the choice of counter-terms and hypersurfaces involved in defining the holographic RG flow, while at the same time we do not explicitly set any boundary condition either at the cut-off or at the horizon. We find that \eta/s does not change along the RG flow, equaling 1/(4\pi) when the future horizon is regular. We also analyze the flow of the speed of sound and find that it diverges at the horizon.

37 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the solutions of pure classical 5D gravity with AdS5 asymptotics can describe strongly coupled large N dynamics in a universal sector of 4D conformal gauge theories.

Abstract: It is known that the solutions of pure classical 5D gravity with AdS5 asymptotics can describe strongly coupled large N dynamics in a universal sector of 4D conformal gauge theories. We show that when the boundary metric is flat we can uniquely specify the solution by the boundary stress tensor. We also show that in the Fefferman-Graham coordinates all these solutions have an integer Taylor series expansion in the radial coordinate (i.e. no log terms). Specifying an arbitrary stress tensor can lead to two types of pathologies, it can either destroy the asymptotic AdS boundary condition or it can produce naked singularities. We show that when solutions have no net angular momentum, all hydrodynamic stress tensors preserve the asymptotic AdS boundary condition, though they may produce naked singularities. We construct solutions corresponding to arbitrary hydrodynamic stress tensors in Fefferman-Graham coordinates using a derivative expansion. In contrast to Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates here the constraint equations simplify and at each order it is manifestly Lorentz covariant. The regularity analysis, becomes more elaborate, but we can show that there is a unique hydrodynamic stress tensor which gives us solutions free of naked singularities. In the process we write down explicit first order solutions in both Fefferman-Graham and Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates for hydrodynamic stress tensors with arbitrary η/s. Our solutions can describe arbitrary (slowly varying) velocity configurations. We point out some field-theoretic implications of our general results.

36 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors study asymptotically slowly varying perturbations of the AdS black brane in Einstein's gravity with a negative cosmological constant.

Abstract: We study asymptotically slowly varying perturbations of the AdS black brane in Einstein’s gravity with a negative cosmological constant. We allow both the induced metric and the Brown-York stress tensor at a given radial cut-off slice to fluctuate. These fluctuations, which determine the radial evolution of the metric, are parametrized in terms of boundary data. We observe that the renormalized energy-momentum tensor at any radial slice takes the standard hydrodynamic form which is relativistically covariant with respect to the induced metric. The RG flow of the fluid takes the form of field redefinitions of the boundary hydrodynamic variables. To show this, up to first order in the derivative expansion, we only need to investigate the radial flow of the boundary data and do not need to impose constraints on them. Imposing the constraints gives unforced nonlinear hydrodynamic equations at any radial slice. Along the way we make a careful study of the choice of counter-terms and hypersurfaces involved in defining the holographic RG flow, while at the same time we do not explicitly set any boundary condition either at the cut-off or at the horizon. We find that η/s does not change along the RG flow, equaling 1/(4π) when the future horizon is regular. We also analyze the flow of the speed of sound and find that it diverges at the horizon.

35 citations

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TL;DR: The fact that one can associate thermodynamic properties with horizons brings together principles of quantum theory, gravitation and thermodynamics and possibly offers a window to the nature of quantum geometry as mentioned in this paper.

Abstract: The fact that one can associate thermodynamic properties with horizons brings together principles of quantum theory, gravitation and thermodynamics and possibly offers a window to the nature of quantum geometry. This review discusses certain aspects of this topic, concentrating on new insights gained from some recent work. After a brief introduction of the overall perspective, sections 2 and 3 provide the pedagogical background on the geometrical features of bifurcation horizons, path integral derivation of horizon temperature, black hole evaporation, structure of Lanczos-Lovelock models, the concept of Noether charge and its relation to horizon entropy. Section 4 discusses several conceptual issues introduced by the existence of temperature and entropy of the horizons. In section 5 we take up the connection between horizon thermodynamics and gravitational dynamics and describe several peculiar features which have no simple interpretation in the conventional approach. The next two sections describe the recent progress achieved in an alternative perspective of gravity. In section 6 we provide a thermodynamic interpretation of the field equations of gravity in any diffeomorphism invariant theory and in section 7 we obtain the field equations of gravity from an entropy maximization principle. The last section provides a summary.

756 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the information retrieval from evaporating black holes is studied under the assumption that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation.

Abstract: We study information retrieval from evaporating black holes, assuming that the internal dynamics of a black hole is unitary and rapidly mixing, and assuming that the retriever has unlimited control over the emitted Hawking radiation. If the evaporation of the black hole has already proceeded past the ``half-way'' point, where half of the initial entropy has been radiated away, then additional quantum information deposited in the black hole is revealed in the Hawking radiation very rapidly. Information deposited prior to the half-way point remains concealed until the half-way point, and then emerges quickly. These conclusions hold because typical local quantum circuits are efficient encoders for quantum error-correcting codes that nearly achieve the capacity of the quantum erasure channel. Our estimate of a black hole's information retention time, based on speculative dynamical assumptions, is just barely compatible with the black hole complementarity hypothesis.

575 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a series of lectures given at the KITP workshop Quantum Criticality and the AdS/CFT Correspondence in July 2009 were described, with the goal of the lectures being to introduce condensed matter physicists to the CFT correspondence.

Abstract: These are notes based on a series of lectures given at the KITP workshop Quantum Criticality and the AdS/CFT Correspondence in July, 2009. The goal of the lectures was to introduce condensed matter physicists to the AdS/CFT correspondence. Discussion of string theory and of supersymmetry is avoided to the extent possible.

486 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive review of the literature on exact solutions of the field equation of the electromagnetic equation of a single particle in the form of diagrams with a focus on the conformal structure of the singularity structure.

Abstract: The title immediately brings to mind a standard reference of almost the same title [1]. The authors are quick to point out the relationship between these two works: they are complementary. The purpose of this work is to explain what is known about a selection of exact solutions. As the authors state, it is often much easier to find a new solution of Einstein's equations than it is to understand it. Even at first glance it is very clear that great effort went into the production of this reference. The book is replete with beautifully detailed diagrams that reflect deep geometric intuition. In many parts of the text there are detailed calculations that are not readily available elsewhere. The book begins with a review of basic tools that allows the authors to set the notation. Then follows a discussion of Minkowski space with an emphasis on the conformal structure and applications such as simple cosmic strings. The next two chapters give an in-depth review of de Sitter space and then anti-de Sitter space. Both chapters contain a remarkable collection of useful diagrams. The standard model in cosmology these days is the ICDM model and whereas the chapter on the Friedmann-Lema?tre?Robertson?Walker space-times contains much useful information, I found the discussion of the currently popular a representation rather too brief. After a brief but interesting excursion into electrovacuum, the authors consider the Schwarzschild space-time. This chapter does mention the Swiss cheese model but the discussion is too brief and certainly dated. Space-times related to Schwarzschild are covered in some detail and include not only the addition of charge and the cosmological constant but also the addition of radiation (the Vaidya solution). Just prior to a discussion of the Kerr space-time, static axially symmetric space-times are reviewed. Here one can find a very interesting discussion of the Curzon?Chazy space-time. The chapter on rotating black holes is rather brief and, for example, does not contain reference to the insights found by Pretorius and Israel [2]. This is perhaps justifiable in view of the many specialized texts devoted to the Kerr space-time (e.g. [3]). The large clear diagrams that one becomes accustomed to in this book show off the Taub-NUT (and related) space-times in the next chapter. After perhaps a somewhat standard discussion of stationary axially symmetric space-times, there is a very informative discussion of accelerating black holes. For example, the global structure of the C-metric is considered in detail. This is followed by a brief discussion of solutions for uniformly accelerating particles. The discussion of the Pleba?ski-Demia?ski solutions contains two very useful flow charts that help to systematize two rather complex families of solutions. After a somewhat brief discussion of plane and pp-waves, the authors give an extensive discussion of the Kunt solutions. I note here that after this text was in production the importance of the Kunt space-times as regards the characterization of space-times by scalar curvature invariants was made clear [4]. The discussion of the Robinson-Trautman solutions that follows is extensive, containing, for example, details of the singularity structure and of the global structure. The final formal chapter in this text covers colliding plane waves. This contains, for example, discussions of the Khan?Penrose, Ferrari?Iba?ez and Chandrasekhar?Xanthopoulos solutions. The text ends with a `final miscellany'. This covers a number of interesting topics, but I found the discussion of the Lema?tre?Tolman solutions rather weak (compare e.g. [5]). The book has two quite useful appendices covering 2-spaces and 3-spaces of constant curvature. To conclude, I will quote from the dust jacket: `The book is an invaluable resource for both graduate students and academic researchers working in gravitational physics'. I highly recommend it. References [1] Stephani H, Kramer D, MacCallum M, Hoenselaers C and Herlt E 2003 Exact Solutions of Einstein's Field Equations (Second Edition) (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [2] Pretorius F and Israel W 1998 Class. Quantum Grav.15 2289 [3] Wiltshire D, Visser M and Scott S (ed) 2008 The Kerr Spacetime: Rotating Black Holes in General Relativity (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press) [4] Coley A, Hervik S and Pelavas N 2009 Class. Quantum Grav. 26 025013 [5] Pleba?ski J and Krasi?ski A 2006 An Introduction to General Relativity and Cosmology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press)

410 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that the Friedmann equation of a FRW universe can be rewritten as the first law of thermodynamics, where the entropy of the apparent horizon is given by the thermodynamic identity of the universe.

Abstract: It is shown that the differential form of Friedmann equation of a FRW universe can be rewritten as the first law of thermodynamics $dE=TdS+WdV$ at apparent horizon, where $E=\ensuremath{\rho}V$ is the total energy of matter inside the apparent horizon, $V$ is the volume inside the apparent horizon, $W=(\ensuremath{\rho}\ensuremath{-}P)/2$ is the work density, $\ensuremath{\rho}$ and $P$ are energy density and pressure of matter in the universe, respectively. From the thermodynamic identity one can derive that the apparent horizon ${\stackrel{\texttildelow{}}{r}}_{A}$ has associated entropy $S=A/4G$ and temperature $T=\ensuremath{\kappa}/2\ensuremath{\pi}$ in Einstein general relativity, where $A$ is the area of apparent horizon and $\ensuremath{\kappa}$ is the surface gravity at apparent horizon of FRW universe. We extend our procedure to the Gauss-Bonnet gravity and more general Lovelock gravity and show that the differential form of Friedmann equations in these gravities can also be written as $dE=TdS+WdV$ at the apparent horizon of FRW universe with entropy $S$ being given by expression previously known via black hole thermodynamics.

400 citations