Author

# Azriel Rosenfeld

Other affiliations: Meiji University

Bio: Azriel Rosenfeld is an academic researcher from University of Maryland, College Park. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Image processing & Feature detection (computer vision). The author has an hindex of 94, co-authored 595 publication(s) receiving 49426 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Azriel Rosenfeld include Meiji University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an up-to-date critical survey of still-and video-based face recognition research, and provide some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces.

Abstract: As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system.This paper provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.

6,175 citations

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01 Jan 1976

TL;DR: The rapid rate at which the field of digital picture processing has grown in the past five years had necessitated extensive revisions and the introduction of topics not found in the original edition.

Abstract: The rapid rate at which the field of digital picture processing has grown in the past five years had necessitated extensive revisions and the introduction of topics not found in the original edition.

4,229 citations

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TL;DR: How the field of computer (and robot) vision has evolved, particularly over the past 20 years, is described, and its central methodological paradigms are introduced.

2,948 citations

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TL;DR: The relative merits of performing local operations on ~ digitized picture in parallel or sequentially are discussed and some applications of the connected component and distance functions are presented.

Abstract: The relative merits of performing local operations on ~ digitized picture in parallel or sequentially are discussed. Sequential local operations are described which l~bel the connected components of a given subset of the picture and compute u \"distance\" from every picture element to the subset. In terms of the \"distance\" function, ~ \"skeleton\" subset is defined which, in a certain sense, minimally determines the original subset. Some applications of the connected component and distance functions are also presented.

1,642 citations

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TL;DR: This paper formulates the ambiguity-reduction process in terms of iterated parallel operations (i.e., relaxation operations) performed on an array of object, identification data.

Abstract: Given a set of objects in a scene whose identifications are ambiguous, it is often possible to use relationships among the objects to reduce or eliminate the ambiguity. A striking example of this approach was given by Waltz [13]. This paper formulates the ambiguity-reduction process in terms of iterated parallel operations (i.e., relaxation operations) performed on an array of (object, identification) data. Several different models of the process are developed, convergence properties of these models are established, and simple examples are given.

1,501 citations

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TL;DR: There is a natural uncertainty principle between detection and localization performance, which are the two main goals, and with this principle a single operator shape is derived which is optimal at any scale.

Abstract: This paper describes a computational approach to edge detection. The success of the approach depends on the definition of a comprehensive set of goals for the computation of edge points. These goals must be precise enough to delimit the desired behavior of the detector while making minimal assumptions about the form of the solution. We define detection and localization criteria for a class of edges, and present mathematical forms for these criteria as functionals on the operator impulse response. A third criterion is then added to ensure that the detector has only one response to a single edge. We use the criteria in numerical optimization to derive detectors for several common image features, including step edges. On specializing the analysis to step edges, we find that there is a natural uncertainty principle between detection and localization performance, which are the two main goals. With this principle we derive a single operator shape which is optimal at any scale. The optimal detector has a simple approximate implementation in which edges are marked at maxima in gradient magnitude of a Gaussian-smoothed image. We extend this simple detector using operators of several widths to cope with different signal-to-noise ratios in the image. We present a general method, called feature synthesis, for the fine-to-coarse integration of information from operators at different scales. Finally we show that step edge detector performance improves considerably as the operator point spread function is extended along the edge.

26,639 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, it is shown that the difference of information between the approximation of a signal at the resolutions 2/sup j+1/ and 2 /sup j/ (where j is an integer) can be extracted by decomposing this signal on a wavelet orthonormal basis of L/sup 2/(R/sup n/), the vector space of measurable, square-integrable n-dimensional functions.

Abstract: Multiresolution representations are effective for analyzing the information content of images. The properties of the operator which approximates a signal at a given resolution were studied. It is shown that the difference of information between the approximation of a signal at the resolutions 2/sup j+1/ and 2/sup j/ (where j is an integer) can be extracted by decomposing this signal on a wavelet orthonormal basis of L/sup 2/(R/sup n/), the vector space of measurable, square-integrable n-dimensional functions. In L/sup 2/(R), a wavelet orthonormal basis is a family of functions which is built by dilating and translating a unique function psi (x). This decomposition defines an orthogonal multiresolution representation called a wavelet representation. It is computed with a pyramidal algorithm based on convolutions with quadrature mirror filters. Wavelet representation lies between the spatial and Fourier domains. For images, the wavelet representation differentiates several spatial orientations. The application of this representation to data compression in image coding, texture discrimination and fractal analysis is discussed. >

19,033 citations

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TL;DR: These results indicate that the easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependancies probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

Abstract: Texture is one of the important characteristics used in identifying objects or regions of interest in an image, whether the image be a photomicrograph, an aerial photograph, or a satellite image. This paper describes some easily computable textural features based on gray-tone spatial dependancies, and illustrates their application in category-identification tasks of three different kinds of image data: photomicrographs of five kinds of sandstones, 1:20 000 panchromatic aerial photographs of eight land-use categories, and Earth Resources Technology Satellite (ERTS) multispecial imagery containing seven land-use categories. We use two kinds of decision rules: one for which the decision regions are convex polyhedra (a piecewise linear decision rule), and one for which the decision regions are rectangular parallelpipeds (a min-max decision rule). In each experiment the data set was divided into two parts, a training set and a test set. Test set identification accuracy is 89 percent for the photomicrographs, 82 percent for the aerial photographic imagery, and 83 percent for the satellite imagery. These results indicate that the easily computable textural features probably have a general applicability for a wide variety of image-classification applications.

18,474 citations

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TL;DR: The analogy between images and statistical mechanics systems is made and the analogous operation under the posterior distribution yields the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the image given the degraded observations, creating a highly parallel ``relaxation'' algorithm for MAP estimation.

Abstract: We make an analogy between images and statistical mechanics systems. Pixel gray levels and the presence and orientation of edges are viewed as states of atoms or molecules in a lattice-like physical system. The assignment of an energy function in the physical system determines its Gibbs distribution. Because of the Gibbs distribution, Markov random field (MRF) equivalence, this assignment also determines an MRF image model. The energy function is a more convenient and natural mechanism for embodying picture attributes than are the local characteristics of the MRF. For a range of degradation mechanisms, including blurring, nonlinear deformations, and multiplicative or additive noise, the posterior distribution is an MRF with a structure akin to the image model. By the analogy, the posterior distribution defines another (imaginary) physical system. Gradual temperature reduction in the physical system isolates low energy states (``annealing''), or what is the same thing, the most probable states under the Gibbs distribution. The analogous operation under the posterior distribution yields the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate of the image given the degraded observations. The result is a highly parallel ``relaxation'' algorithm for MAP estimation. We establish convergence properties of the algorithm and we experiment with some simple pictures, for which good restorations are obtained at low signal-to-noise ratios.

18,328 citations