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B. E. de Jongh

Bio: B. E. de Jongh is an academic researcher from Drexel University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Odds ratio & Premature birth. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 3 publications receiving 82 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These infants with mild-to-moderate respiratory insufficiency demonstrate a meaningful elevation in WOB indices and continue to require non-invasive respiratory support.
Abstract: To compare work of breathing (WOB) indices between two nCPAP settings and two levels of HFNC in a crossover study. Infants with a CGA 28–40 weeks, baseline of HFNC 3–5 lpm or nCPAP 5-6 cmH2O and fraction of inspired oxygen ⩽40% were eligible. WOB was analyzed using respiratory inductive plethysmography (RIP) for each of the four modalities: HFNC 3 and 5 lpm, nCPAP 5 and 6 cmH2O. N=20; Study weight 1516 g (±40 g). Approximately 12 000 breaths were analyzed indicating a high degree of asynchronous breathing and elevated WOB indices at all four levels of support. Phase angle values (means) (P<0.01): HFNC 3 lpm (114.7°), HFNC 5 lpm (96.7°), nCPAP 5 cmH2O (87.2°), nCPAP 6 cmH2O (80.5°). The mean phase relation of total breath (PhRTB) (means) (P<0.01): HFNC 3 lpm (63.2%), HFNC 5 lpm (55.3%), nCPAP 5 cmH2O (49.3%), nCPAP 6 cmH2O (48.0%). The relative labored breathing index (LBI) (means) (P⩽0.001): HFNC 3 lpm (1.39), HFNC 5 lpm (1.31), nCPAP 5 cmH2O (1.29), nCPAP 6 cmH2O (1.26). Eighty-two percent of the study subjects—respiratory mode combinations displayed clustering, in which a proportion of breaths either occurred predominantly out-of-phase (relative asynchrony) or in-phase (relative synchrony). In this study, WOB indices were statistically different, yet clinically similar in that they were elevated with respect to normal values. These infants with mild-to-moderate respiratory insufficiency demonstrate a meaningful elevation in WOB indices and continue to require non-invasive respiratory support. Patient variability exists with regard to biphasic clustered breathing patterns and the level of supplemental fraction of inspired oxygen ⩽40% alone does not provide guidance to the optimal matching of WOB indices and non-invasive respiratory support.

42 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese, and the design and evaluation of weight-based maternal health programs that aggregate race/ethnicity may not be sufficient.
Abstract: To investigate the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Retrospective cohort study of maternal deliveries at a single regional center from 2009 to 2010 time period (n = 11,711). Generalized linear models were used for the analysis to estimate an adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval of the association between maternal pre-pregnancy obesity, race/ethnicity and prematurity. Analysis controlled for diabetes, chronic hypertension, previous preterm birth, smoking and insurance status. The demographics of the study population were as follows, race/ethnicity had predominance in the White/Non-Hispanic population with 60.1%, followed by the Black/Non-Hispanic population 24.2%, the Hispanic population with 10.3% and the Asian population with 5.4%. Maternal pre-pregnancy weight showed that the population with a normal body mass index (BMI) was 49.4%, followed by the population being overweight with 26.2%, and last, the population which was obese with 24.4%. Maternal obesity increased the odds of prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian population (aOR 1.40, CI 1.12-1.75; aOR 2.20, CI 1.23-3.95; aOR 3.07, CI 1.16-8.13, respectively). Although the Black/Non-Hispanic population prematurity rate remains higher than the other race/ethnicity populations, the Black/Non-Hispanic population did not have an increased odds of prematurity in obese mothers (OR 0.87; CI 0.68-1.19). Unlike White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic mothers, normal pre-pregnancy BMI in Black/Non-Hispanic mothers was not associated with lower odds for prematurity. The odds for mothers of the White/Non-Hispanic, Hispanic and Asian populations, for delivering a premature infant, were significantly increased when obese. Analysis controlled for chronic hypertension, diabetes, insurance status, prior preterm birth and smoking. Obesity is a risk factor for prematurity in the White/Non-Hispanic, Asian and Hispanic population, but not for the Black/Non-Hispanic population. The design and evaluation of weight-based maternal health programs that aggregate race/ethnicity may not be sufficient. The optimal method to address maternal pre-pregnancy and intra-pregnancy weight-related health disorders may need to be stratified along race/ethnicity adjusted strategies and goals. However, a more global preventative strategy that encompasses the social determinants of health may be needed to reduce the higher rates of prematurity among the Black/Non-Hispanic population.

31 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Abstract: To study the association of advanced maternal age (AMA) and race/ethnicity on placental pathology in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants. Retrospective analysis of placental pathology of inborn singleton VLBW infants from a regional level 3 NICU between July, 2002 and June, 2009. Subjects were stratified by age and race/ethnicity. Statistical analysis included One-way ANOVA, Chi Square and multivariable analyses. A total of 739 mother/infant dyads were included. AMA was associated with a decrease in placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio. Black/Non-Hispanic mothers ≥35 had a lower placental weight (p = 0.01) and lower placental weight/birth weight ratio (z-score, −0.45 ± 0.71 vs −0.04 ± 1.1, p = 0.01) compared to Black/Non-Hispanic mothers <35 years of age. After controlling for gestational age, race/ethnicity, maternal diabetes, maternal smoking, maternal hypertension and clinical chorioamnionitis, AMA, but not race/ethnicity, remained independently associated with placental weight/birthweight ratio z score (full model r2 = 0.22, p < 0.01). In our study sample of VLBW infants, placental weight and placental weight/birthweight ratio were lower in mothers of advanced maternal age compared to mothers <35 years of age. Our data suggest that maternal age affects placentation in VLBW infants, which could influence maternal and neonatal outcomes.

17 citations


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01 Feb 2009
TL;DR: This Secret History documentary follows experts as they pick through the evidence and reveal why the plague killed on such a scale, and what might be coming next.
Abstract: Secret History: Return of the Black Death Channel 4, 7-8pm In 1348 the Black Death swept through London, killing people within days of the appearance of their first symptoms. Exactly how many died, and why, has long been a mystery. This Secret History documentary follows experts as they pick through the evidence and reveal why the plague killed on such a scale. And they ask, what might be coming next?

5,234 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nose cannula to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min.
Abstract: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) oxygen therapy is carried out using an air/oxygen blender, active humidifier, single heated tube, and nasal cannula. Able to deliver adequately heated and humidified medical gas at flows up to 60 L/min, it is considered to have a number of physiological advantages compared with other standard oxygen therapies, including reduced anatomical dead space, PEEP, constant F(IO2), and good humidification. Although few large randomized clinical trials have been performed, HFNC has been gaining attention as an alternative respiratory support for critically ill patients. Published data are mostly available for neonates. For critically ill adults, however, evidence is uneven because the reports cover various subjects with diverse underlying conditions, such as hypoxemic respiratory failure, exacerbation of COPD, postextubation, preintubation oxygenation, sleep apnea, acute heart failure, and conditions entailing do-not-intubate orders. Even so, across the diversity, many published reports suggest that HFNC decreases breathing frequency and work of breathing and reduces the need for respiratory support escalation. Some important issues remain to be resolved, such as definitive indications for HFNC and criteria for timing the starting and stopping of HFNC and for escalating treatment. Despite these issues, HFNC has emerged as an innovative and effective modality for early treatment of adults with respiratory failure with diverse underlying diseases.

294 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing HFNC with other non-invasive forms of respiratory support in preterm infants immediately after birth or following extubation found no difference in the rate of the primary outcomes between HFNC and CPAP in different gestational age subgroups.
Abstract: Background High flow nasal cannulae (HFNC) are small, thin, tapered binasal tubes that deliver oxygen or blended oxygen/air at gas flows of more than 1 L/min. HFNC are increasingly being used as a form of non-invasive respiratory support for preterm infants. Objectives To compare the safety and efficacy of HFNC with other forms of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants. Search methods We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 1), MEDLINE via PubMed (1966 to 1 January 2016), EMBASE (1980 to 1 January 2016), and CINAHL (1982 to 1 January 2016). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and the reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised trials. Selection criteria Randomised or quasi-randomised trials comparing HFNC with other non-invasive forms of respiratory support in preterm infants immediately after birth or following extubation. Data collection and analysis The authors extracted and analysed data, and calculated risk ratio, risk difference and number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome. Main results We identified 15 studies for inclusion in the review. The studies differed in the interventions compared (nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), non-humidified HFNC, models for delivering HFNC), the gas flows used and the indications for respiratory support (primary support from soon after birth, post-extubation support, weaning from CPAP support). When used as primary respiratory support after birth compared to CPAP (4 studies, 439 infants), there were no differences in the primary outcomes of death (typical risk ratio (RR) 0.36, 95% CI 0.01 to 8.73; 4 studies, 439 infants) or chronic lung disease (CLD) (typical RR 2.07, 95% CI 0.64 to 6.64; 4 studies, 439 infants). HFNC use resulted in longer duration of respiratory support, but there were no differences in other secondary outcomes. One study (75 infants) showed no differences between HFNC and NIPPV as primary support. Following extubation (total 6 studies, 934 infants), there were no differences between HFNC and CPAP in the primary outcomes of death (typical RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.36; 5 studies, 896 infants) or CLD (typical RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.18; 5 studies, 893 infants). There was no difference in the rate of treatment failure (typical RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.55; 5 studies, 786 infants) or reintubation (typical RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.20; 6 studies, 934 infants). Infants randomised to HFNC had reduced nasal trauma (typical RR 0.64, 95% CI 0.51 to 0.79; typical risk difference (RD) −0.14, 95% CI −0.20 to −0.08; 4 studies, 645 infants). There was a small reduction in the rate of pneumothorax (typical RR 0.35, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.06; typical RD −0.02, 95% CI −0.03 to −0.00; 5 studies 896 infants) in infants treated with HFNC. Subgroup analysis found no difference in the rate of the primary outcomes between HFNC and CPAP in preterm infants in different gestational age subgroups, though there were only small numbers of extremely preterm and late preterm infants. One trial (28 infants) found similar rates of reintubation for humidified and non-humidified HFNC, and two other trials (100 infants) found no difference between different models of equipment used to deliver humidified HFNC. For infants weaning from non-invasive respiratory support (CPAP), two studies (149 infants) found that preterm infants randomised to HFNC had a reduced duration of hospitalisation compared with infants who remained on CPAP. Authors' conclusions HFNC has similar rates of efficacy to other forms of non-invasive respiratory support in preterm infants for preventing treatment failure, death and CLD. Most evidence is available for the use of HFNC as post-extubation support. Following extubation, HFNC is associated with less nasal trauma, and may be associated with reduced pneumothorax compared with nasal CPAP. Further adequately powered randomised controlled trials should be undertaken in preterm infants comparing HFNC with other forms of primary non-invasive support after birth and for weaning from non-invasive support. Further evidence is also required for evaluating the safety and efficacy of HFNC in extremely preterm and mildly preterm subgroups, and for comparing different HFNC devices.

227 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Randomized controlled trials suggest that these newer modalities may be effective alternatives to n CPAP and may offer some advantages over nCPAP, but efficacy and safety data are limited.
Abstract: Mechanical ventilation is associated with increased survival of preterm infants but is also associated with an increased incidence of chronic lung disease (bronchopulmonary dysplasia) in survivors. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a form of noninvasive ventilation that reduces the need for mechanical ventilation and decreases the combined outcome of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Other modes of noninvasive ventilation, including nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, biphasic positive airway pressure, and high-flow nasal cannula, have recently been introduced into the NICU setting as potential alternatives to mechanical ventilation or nCPAP. Randomized controlled trials suggest that these newer modalities may be effective alternatives to nCPAP and may offer some advantages over nCPAP, but efficacy and safety data are limited.

94 citations