scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question
Author

B. Helen Jost

Bio: B. Helen Jost is an academic researcher from University of Arizona. The author has contributed to research in topics: Arcanobacterium pyogenes & Clostridium perfringens. The author has an hindex of 26, co-authored 39 publications receiving 2276 citations.

Papers
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Significant differences between the strains include numerous novel mobile elements and genes encoding metabolic capabilities, strain-specific extracellular polysaccharide capsule, sporulation factors, toxins, and other secreted enzymes, providing substantial insight into this medically important bacterial pathogen.
Abstract: Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive, anaerobic spore-forming bacterium commonly found in soil, sediments, and the human gastrointestinal tract. C. perfringens is responsible for a wide spectrum of disease, including food poisoning, gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), enteritis necroticans, and non-foodborne gastrointestinal infections. The complete genome sequences of Clostridium perfringens strain ATCC 13124, a gas gangrene isolate and the species type strain, and the enterotoxin-producing food poisoning strain SM101, were determined and compared with the published C. perfringens strain 13 genome. Comparison of the three genomes revealed considerable genomic diversity with >300 unique "genomic islands" identified, with the majority of these islands unusually clustered on one replichore. PCR-based analysis indicated that the large genomic islands are widely variable across a large collection of C. perfringens strains. These islands encode genes that correlate to differences in virulence and phenotypic characteristics of these strains. Significant differences between the strains include numerous novel mobile elements and genes encoding metabolic capabilities, strain-specific extracellular polysaccharide capsule, sporulation factors, toxins, and other secreted enzymes, providing substantial insight into this medically important bacterial pathogen.

315 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is determined that C. jejuni can form biofilms on a variety of abiotic surfaces commonly used in watering systems, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polyvinyl chloride plastics, and both flagella and quorum sensing appear to be required for maximal biofilm formation.
Abstract: Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of human diarrheal disease in many industrialized countries and is a source of public health and economic burden. C. jejuni, present as normal flora in the intestinal tract of commercial broiler chickens and other livestock, is probably the main source of human infections. The presence of C. jejuni in biofilms found in animal production watering systems may play a role in the colonization of these animals. We have determined that C. jejuni can form biofilms on a variety of abiotic surfaces commonly used in watering systems, such as acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polyvinyl chloride plastics. Furthermore, C. jejuni biofilm formation was inhibited by growth in nutrient-rich media or high osmolarity, and thermophilic and microaerophilic conditions enhanced biofilm formation. Thus, nutritional and environmental conditions affect the formation of C. jejuni biofilms. Both flagella and quorum sensing appear to be required for maximal biofilm formation, as C. jejuni flaAB and luxS mutants were significantly reduced in their ability to form biofilms compared to the wild-type strain.

220 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high rate of cpb2-positivity among strains from neonatal pigs with enteritis and the high correlation of genotype with phenotype, supports the contention that beta2 toxin plays a role in the pathogenesis of these infections.

196 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The two component regulatory system, PloSR, up-regulate pyolysin expression and biofilm formation but down-regulates expression of proteases, suggesting that it may act as a global regulator of A. pyogenes virulence.
Abstract: Arcanobacterium pyogenes is a commensal and an opportunistic pathogen of economically important livestock, causing diseases as diverse as mastitis, liver abscessation and pneumonia. This organism possesses a number of virulence factors that contribute to its pathogenic potential. A. pyogenes expresses a cholesterol-dependent cytolysin, pyolysin, which is a haemolysin and is cytolytic for immune cells, including macrophages. Expression of pyolysin is required for virulence and this molecule is the most promising vaccine candidate identified to date. A. pyogenes also possesses a number of adherence mechanisms, including two neuraminidases, the action of which are required for full adhesion to epithelial cells, and several extracellular matrix-binding proteins, including a collagen-binding protein, which may be required for adhesion to collagen-rich tissue. A. pyogenes also expresses fimbriae, which are similar to the type 2 fimbriae of Actinomyces naeslundii, and forms biofilms. However, the role of these factors in the pathogenesis of A. pyogenes infections remains to be elucidated. A. pyogenes also invades and survives within epithelial cells and can survive within J774A.1 macrophages for up to 72 h, suggesting an important role for A. pyogenes interaction with host cells during pathogenesis. The two component regulatory system, PloSR, up-regulates pyolysin expression and biofilm formation but down-regulates expression of proteases, suggesting that it may act as a global regulator of A. pyogenes virulence. A. pyogenes is a versatile pathogen, with an arsenal of virulence determinants. However, most aspects of the pathogenesis of infection caused by this important opportunistic pathogen remain poorly characterized.

187 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the spider and bacterial SMaseD hydrolyze albumin-bound lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), but not sphingosylphosphorylcholine, with Km values well below the normal LPC levels in blood, indicating that toxic SMases D have intrinsic lysphospholipase D activity toward LPC.

130 citations


Cited by
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An account of the recent explosion of actinobacterial genomics data is provided and an attempt to place this in a biological and evolutionary context.
Abstract: Summary: Actinobacteria constitute one of the largest phyla among Bacteria and represent gram-positive bacteria with a high G+C content in their DNA. This bacterial group includes microorganisms exhibiting a wide spectrum of morphologies, from coccoid to fragmenting hyphal forms, as well as possessing highly variable physiological and metabolic properties. Furthermore, Actinobacteria members have adopted different lifestyles, and can be pathogens (e.g., Corynebacterium, Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Tropheryma, and Propionibacterium), soil inhabitants (Streptomyces), plant commensals (Leifsonia), or gastrointestinal commensals (Bifidobacterium). The divergence of Actinobacteria from other bacteria is ancient, making it impossible to identify the phylogenetically closest bacterial group to Actinobacteria. Genome sequence analysis has revolutionized every aspect of bacterial biology by enhancing the understanding of the genetics, physiology, and evolutionary development of bacteria. Various actinobacterial genomes have been sequenced, revealing a wide genomic heterogeneity probably as a reflection of their biodiversity. This review provides an account of the recent explosion of actinobacterial genomics data and an attempt to place this in a biological and evolutionary context.

1,026 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: New conjugative transposons, carrying different ribosomal protection tet genes, have been identified and an increase in the number of antibiotic resistance genes linked to tet genes has been found and whether these new elements may help to spread the tet genes they carry to a wider bacterial host range is discussed.
Abstract: This mini-review summarizes the changes in the field of bacterial acquired tetracycline resistance (tet) and oxytetracycline (otr) genes identified since the last major review in 2001. Thirty-eight acquired tetracycline resistant (Tcr) genes are known of which nine are new and include five genes coding for energy-dependent efflux proteins, two genes coding for ribosomal protection proteins, and two genes coding for tetracycline inactivating enzymes. The number of inactivating enzymes has increased from one to three, suggesting that work needs to be done to determine the role these enzymes play in bacterial resistance to tetracycline. In the same time period, 66 new genera have been identified which carry one or more of the previously described 29 Tcr genes. Included in the new genera is, for the first time, an obligate intracellular pathogen suggesting that this sheltered group of bacteria is capable of DNA exchange with non-obligate intracellular bacteria. The number of genera carrying ribosomal protection genes increased dramatically with the tet(M) gene now identified in 42 genera as compared with 24 and the tet(W) gene found in 17 new genera as compared to two genera in the last major review. New conjugative transposons, carrying different ribosomal protection tet genes, have been identified and an increase in the number of antibiotic resistance genes linked to tet genes has been found. Whether these new elements may help to spread the tet genes they carry to a wider bacterial host range is discussed.

870 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptospora species.
Abstract: There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades. This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp. A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species. All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN. Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp. are currently recognized: C. muris, C. andersoni, C. parvum, C. hominis, C. wrairi, C. felis, and C. cannis in mammals; C. baileyi, C. meleagridis, and C. galli in birds; C. serpentis and C. saurophilum in reptiles; and C. molnari in fish. With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium. The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp., assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp. in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources.

804 citations

01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: There has been an explosion of descriptions of new species of Cryptosporidium during the last two decades This has been accompanied by confusion regarding the criteria for species designation, largely because of the lack of distinct morphologic differences and strict host specificity among Cryptosporidium spp A review of the biologic species concept, the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (ICZN), and current practices for Cryptosporidium species designation calls for the establishment of guidelines for naming Cryptosporidium species All reports of new Cryptosporidium species should include at least four basic components: oocyst morphology, natural host specificity, genetic characterizations, and compliance with the ICZN Altogether, 13 Cryptosporidium spp are currently recognized: C muris, C andersoni, C parvum, C hominis, C wrairi, C felis; and C cannis in mammals; C baileyi, C meleagridis, and C galli in birds; C serpentis and C saurophilum in reptiles; and C molnari in fish With the establishment of a framework for naming Cryptosporidium species and the availability of new taxonomic tools, there should be less confusion associated with the taxonomy of the genus Cryptosporidium The clarification of Cryptosporidium taxonomy is also useful for understanding the biology of Cryptosporidium spp, assessing the public health significance of Cryptosporidium spp in animals and the environment, characterizing transmission dynamics, and tracking infection and contamination sources

801 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease.
Abstract: Uterine microbial disease affects half of all dairy cattle after parturition, causing infertility by disrupting uterine and ovarian function. Infection with Escherichia coli, Arcanobacterium pyogenes, and bovine herpesvirus 4 causes endometrial tissue damage. Toll-like receptors on endometrial cells detect pathogen-associated molecules such as bacterial DNA, lipids, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), leading to secretion of cytokines, chemokines, and antimicrobial peptides. Chemokines attract neutrophils and macrophages to eliminate the bacteria, although persistence of neutrophils is associated with subclinical endometritis and infertility. Cows with uterine infections are less likely to ovulate because they have slower growth of the postpartum dominant follicle in the ovary, lower peripheral plasma estradiol concentrations, and perturbation of hypothalamic and pituitary function. The follicular fluid of animals with endometritis contains LPS, which is detected by the TLR4/CD14/LY96 (MD2) receptor complex on granulosa cells, leading to lower aromatase expression and reduced estradiol secretion. If cows with uterine disease ovulate, the peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone are lower than those in normal animals. However, luteal phases are often extended in animals with uterine disease, probably because infection switches the endometrial epithelial secretion of prostaglandins from the F series to the E series by a phospholipase A2-mediated mechanism, which would disrupt luteolysis. The regulation of endometrial immunity depends on steroid hormones, somatotrophins, and local regulatory proteins. Advances in knowledge about infection and immunity in the female genital tract should be exploited to develop new therapeutics for uterine disease.

758 citations