Author

# Baburaj A. Puthenveettil

Other affiliations: Indian Institute of Science

Bio: Baburaj A. Puthenveettil is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Rayleigh number & Natural convection. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 31 publication(s) receiving 327 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Baburaj A. Puthenveettil include Indian Institute of Science.

Topics: Rayleigh number, Natural convection, Plume, Convection, Drop (liquid)

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local nearwall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be Laminar mixed convection type.

Abstract: Near-wall structures in turbulent natural convection at Rayleigh numbers of $10^{10}$ to $10^{11}$ at A Schmidt number of 602 are visualized by a new method of driving the convection across a fine membrane using concentration differences of sodium chloride. The visualizations show the near-wall flow to consist of sheet plumes. A wide variety of large-scale flow cells, scaling with the cross-section dimension, are observed. Multiple large-scale flow cells are seen at aspect ratio (AR)= 0.65, while only a single circulation cell is detected at AR= 0.435. The cells (or the mean wind) are driven by plumes coming together to form columns of rising lighter fluid. The wind in turn aligns the sheet plumes along the direction of shear. the mean wind direction is seen to change with time. The near-wall dynamics show plumes initiated at points, which elongate to form sheets and then merge. Increase in rayleigh number results in a larger number of closely and regularly spaced plumes. The plume spacings show a common log–normal probability distribution function, independent of the rayleigh number and the aspect ratio. We propose that the near-wall structure is made of laminar natural-convection boundary layers, which become unstable to give rise to sheet plumes, and show that the predictions of a model constructed on this hypothesis match the experiments. Based on these findings, we conclude that in the presence of a mean wind, the local near-wall boundary layers associated with each sheet plume in high-rayleigh-number turbulent natural convection are likely to be laminar mixed convection type.

60 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present experimental results on high-Reynolds-number motion of partially nonwetting liquid drops on inclined plane surfaces using: (i) water on fluoro-alkyl silane (FAS)-coated glass; and (ii) mercury on glass.

Abstract: We present experimental results on high-Reynolds-number motion of partially non-wetting liquid drops on inclined plane surfaces using: (i) water on fluoro-alkyl silane (FAS)-coated glass; and (ii) mercury on glass. The former is a high-hysteresis ( ) surface while the latter is a low-hysteresis one ( ). The water drop experiments have been conducted for capillary numbers and for Reynolds numbers based on drop diameter . The ranges for mercury on glass experiments are and . It is shown that when for water and for mercury, a boundary layer flow model accounts for the observed velocities. A general expression for the dimensionless velocity of the drop, covering the whole range, is derived, which scales with the modified Bond number ( ). This expression shows that at low , and at large , . The dynamic contact angle ( ) variation scales, at least to first-order, with ; the contact angle variation in water, corrected for the hysteresis, collapses onto the low- data of LeGrand, Daerr & Limat (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 541, 2005, pp. 293–315). The receding contact angle variation of mercury has a slope very different from that in water, but the variation is practically linear with . We compare our dynamic contact angle data to several models available in the literature. Most models can describe the data of LeGrand et al. (2005) for high-viscosity silicon oil, but often need unexpected values of parameters to describe our water and mercury data. In particular, a purely hydrodynamic description requires unphysically small values of slip length, while the molecular-kinetic model shows asymmetry between the wetting and dewetting, which is quite strong for mercury. The model by Shikhmurzaev (Intl J. Multiphase Flow, vol. 19, 1993, pp. 589–610) is able to group the data for the three fluids around a single curve, thereby restoring a certain symmetry, by using two adjustable parameters that have reasonable values. At larger velocities, the mercury drops undergo a change at the rear from an oval to a corner shape when viewed from above; the corner transition occurs at a finite receding contact angle. Water drops do not show such a clear transition from oval to corner shape. Instead, a direct transition from an oval shape to a rivulet appears to occur.

43 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present planforms of line plumes formed on horizontal surfaces in turbulent convection, along with the length of plumes measured from these planforms, in a six decade range of Rayleigh numbers (10(5) < Ra < 10(11)) and at three Prandtl numbers (Pr = 0.7, 5.2, 602).

Abstract: We present planforms of line plumes formed on horizontal surfaces in turbulent convection, along with the length of line plumes measured from these planforms, in a six decade range of Rayleigh numbers (10(5) < Ra < 10(11)) and at three Prandtl numbers (Pr = 0.7, 5.2, 602). Using geometric constraints on the relations for the mean plume spacings, we obtain expressions for the total length of near-wall plumes on horizontal surfaces in turbulent convection. The plume length per unit area (L(p)/A), made dimensionless by the near-wall length scale in turbulent convection (Z(w)), remains constant for a given fluid. The Nusselt number is shown to be directly proportional to L(p)H/A for a given fluid layer of height H. The increase in Pr has a weak influence in decreasing L(p)/A. These expressions match the measurements, thereby showing that the assumption of laminar natural convection boundary layers in turbulent convection is consistent with the observed total length of line plumes. We then show that similar relationships are obtained based on the assumption that the line plumes are the outcome of the instability of laminar natural convection boundary layers on the horizontal surfaces.

33 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the evolution of the wave patterns from the instability to the wave-breaking threshold in a forcing frequency range (f = ω/2π = 25-100 Hz) that is around the crossover frequency from gravity to capillary waves (ω ot /2 ≤ ω 2π ≤ 4ω ot ).

Abstract: We present results on parametrically forced capillary waves in a circular cylinder, obtained in the limit of large fluid depth, using two low-viscosity liquids whose surface tensions differ by an order of magnitude. The evolution of the wave patterns from the instability to the wave-breaking threshold is investigated in a forcing frequency range (f = ω/2π = 25-100 Hz) that is around the crossover frequency (ω ot ) from gravity to capillary waves (ω ot /2 ≤ ω/2 ≤ 4ω ot ). As expected, near the instability threshold the wave pattern depends on the container geometry, but as the forcing amplitude is increased the wave pattern becomes random, and the wall effects are insignificant. Near breaking, the distribution of random wavelengths can be fitted by a Gaussian. A new gravity-capillary scaling is introduced that is more appropriate, than the usual viscous scaling, for low-viscosity fluids and forcing frequencies < 10 3 Hz. In terms of these scales, a criterion is derived to predict the crossover from capillary- to gravity-dominated breaking. A wave-breaking model is developed that gives the relation between the container and the wave accelerations in agreement with experiments. The measured drop size distribution of the ejected drops above the breaking threshold is well approximated by a gamma distribution. The mean drop diameter is proportional to the wavelength determined from the dispersion relation; this wavelength is also close to the most likely wavelength of the random waves at drop ejection. The dimensionless drop ejection rate is shown to have a cubic power law dependence on the dimensionless excess acceleration ∈ ' d ; an inertial-gravitational ligament formation model is consistent with such a power law.

28 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied the near-membrane flow in all the regimes consisting of sheet plumes formed from the unstable layers of fluid near the membrane, and proposed a phenomenology which predicts the observed $Nu_b\sim Ra^2/Sc$ scaling of Nusselt number.

Abstract: We study natural convection driven by unstable concentration differences of NaCl across a horizontal permeable membrane at Rayleigh numbers (Ra) of $10^{10}$ to $10^{11}$; the Schmidt number $(Sc) = 600$. A layer of brine lies over a layer of distilled water, separated by the membrane, in square cross section tanks. The membrane is permeable enough to allow a small flow across it at higher driving potentials. Based on the predominant mode of transport across the membrane, three regimes of convection, viz. an advection regime, a diffusion regime and a combined regime, are identified. The near-membrane flow in all the regimes consists of sheet plumes formed from the unstable layers of fluid near the membrane. In the advection regime bserved at higher concentration differences $(\Delta C)$ across the membrane, there is a slow overturning through-flow across the membrane; the transport across the membrane occurs mostly by advection. This phenomenology explains the observed $Nu_b\sim Ra^2/Sc$ scaling of Nusselt number. The planforms of sheet plumes near the membrane show a dendritic structure due to the combined influence of the mean shear due to the large scale flow and the entrainment flow of the adjacent plumes. The near-membrane dynamics show initiation, elongation and merger of plumes. Increase in Ra results in more number of closely and regularly spaced sheet plumes. The mean plume spacing in the advection regime $\overline{\lambda}_b$, is larger than the mean plume spacing in Rayleigh - $B\'{e}nard$ Convection $(\overline{\lambda})$, and shows a different Ra dependence. The plume spacings in the advection regime $(\lambda_b)$ show a common log-normal probability density function at all Ra. We propose a phenomenology which predicts $\overline{\lambda}_b\sim \sqrt{Z_wZ_{V_i}}$, where $Z_w$ and $Z_{V_i}$ are respectively the near-wall length scales in Rayleigh - $B\'{e}nard$ convection (RBC) and due to the advection velocity. In the combined regime, which occur at intermediate values of $\Delta C$, the flux scales as $(\Delta C/2)^{4/3}$. At lower driving potentials, in the diffusion regime, the flux scaling is similar to that in turbulent RBC.

26 citations

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01 Jan 1997

TL;DR: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are described in this paper, where the boundary layer equation for plane incompressibility is defined in terms of boundary layers.

Abstract: The boundary layer equations for plane, incompressible, and steady flow are
$$\matrix{ {u{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + v{{\partial u} \over {\partial y}} = - {1 \over \varrho }{{\partial p} \over {\partial x}} + v{{{\partial ^2}u} \over {\partial {y^2}}},} \cr {0 = {{\partial p} \over {\partial y}},} \cr {{{\partial u} \over {\partial x}} + {{\partial v} \over {\partial y}} = 0.} \cr }$$

2,288 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number depend on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr, and the thicknesses of the thermal and the kinetic boundary layers scale with Ra and Pr.

Abstract: The progress in our understanding of several aspects of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection is reviewed. The focus is on the question of how the Nusselt number and the Reynolds number depend on the Rayleigh number Ra and the Prandtl number Pr, and on how the thicknesses of the thermal and the kinetic boundary layers scale with Ra and Pr. Non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects and the dynamics of the large scale convection roll are addressed as well. The review ends with a list of challenges for future research on the turbulent Rayleigh-Benard system.

1,175 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the properties of the structure functions and other small-scale quantities in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection are reviewed from an experimental, theoretical, and numerical point of view.

Abstract: The properties of the structure functions and other small-scale quantities in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection are reviewed, from an experimental, theoretical, and numerical point of view. In particular, we address the question of whether, and if so where in the flow, the so-called Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling exists, i.e., Sθ(r) ∼ r2/5 for the second-order temperature structure function and Su(r) ∼ r6/5 for the second-order velocity structure function. Apart from the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of the flow, insufficiently high Rayleigh numbers, and intermittency corrections (which all hinder the identification of such a potential regime), there are also reasons, as a matter of principle, why such a scaling regime may be limited to at most a decade, namely the lack of clear scale separation between the Bolgiano length scale LB and the height of the cell.

639 citations

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TL;DR: Key emphasis is given to the physics and structure of the thermal and velocity boundary layers which play a key role for the better understanding of the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in convection at high and very high Rayleigh numbers.

Abstract: Recent experimental, numerical and theoretical advances in turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection are presented. Particular emphasis is given to the physics and structure of the thermal and velocity boundary layers which play a key role for the better understanding of the turbulent transport of heat and momentum in convection at high and very high Rayleigh numbers. We also discuss important extensions of Rayleigh-Benard convection such as non-Oberbeck-Boussinesq effects and convection with phase changes.

513 citations