Bansi D. Malhotra
Other affiliations: University of Delhi, Jamia Millia Islamia, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research ...read more
Bio: Bansi D. Malhotra is an academic researcher from Delhi Technological University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Polyaniline & Biosensor. The author has an hindex of 75, co-authored 375 publications receiving 19419 citations. Previous affiliations of Bansi D. Malhotra include University of Delhi & Jamia Millia Islamia.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In the present review an attempt has been made to describe the salient features of conducting polymers and their wide applications in health care, food industries, environmental monitoring etc.
Abstract: Recently, conducting polymers have attracted much interest in the development of biosensors. The electrically conducting polymers are known to possess numerous features, which allow them to act as excellent materials for immobilization of biomolecules and rapid electron transfer for the fabrication of efficient biosensors. In the present review an attempt has been made to describe the salient features of conducting polymers and their wide applications in health care, food industries, environmental monitoring etc.
TL;DR: Nanostructured metal oxides (NMOs) have recently become important as materials that provide an effective surface for biomolecule immobilization with desired orientation, better conformation and high biological activity resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Nanostructured metal oxides (NMOs) have recently become important as materials that provide an effective surface for biomolecule immobilization with desired orientation, better conformation and high biological activity resulting in enhanced sensing characteristics. Nanostructured metal oxides with unique optical, electrical and molecular properties along with desired functionalities and surface charge properties provide interesting platforms for interfacing biorecognition elements with transducers for signal amplification. In this review, we discuss the various approaches that have been adopted for improving the performance of NMO-based biosensors for clinical and non-clinical applications. The performance of an NMO-based biosensor can be improved by tailoring the properties of the metal oxide–biomolecule interface through engineering of morphology, particle size, effective surface area, functionality, adsorption capability and electron-transfer properties. These interesting NMOs are expected to find applications in a new generation of miniaturized, smart biosensing devices.
TL;DR: Efforts have been made to discuss and explore various characteristics of PANI responsible for direct electron transfer leading towards fabrication of mediator-less biosensors.
Abstract: The present paper contains a detailed overview of recent advances relating to polyaniline (PANI) as a transducer material for biosensor applications. This conducting polymer provides enormous opportunities for binding biomolecules, tuning their bio-catalytic properties, rapid electron transfer and direct communication to produce a range of analytical signals and new analytical applications. Merging the specific nature of different biomolecules (enzymes, nucleic acids, antibodies, etc.) and the key properties of this modern conducting matrix, possible biosensor designs and their biosensing characteristics have been discussed. Efforts have been made to discuss and explore various characteristics of PANI responsible for direct electron transfer leading towards fabrication of mediator-less biosensors.
TL;DR: The GOx/CH-Fe(3)O(4)/ITO nanocomposite bioelectrode has response time of 5s, linearity as 10-400 mgdL(-1) of glucose, sensitivity as 9.3 microA/(mgdLcm(2)) and shelf life of about 8 weeks under refrigerated conditions.
Abstract: Iron oxide (Fe 3 O 4 ) nanoparticles prepared using co-precipitation method have been dispersed in chitosan (CH) solution to fabricate nanocomposite film on indium–tin oxide (ITO) glass plate. Glucose oxidase (GOx) has been immobilized onto this CH–Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite film via physical adsorption. The size of the Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles estimated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been found to be ∼22 nm. The CH–Fe 3 O 4 nanocomposite film and GOx/CH–Fe 3 O 4 /ITO bioelectrode have been characterized using UV–visible and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, respectively. This GOx/CH–Fe 3 O 4 /ITO nanocomposite bioelectrode has response time of 5 s, linearity as 10–400 mg dL −1 of glucose, sensitivity as 9.3 μA/(mg dL cm 2 ) and shelf life of about 8 weeks under refrigerated conditions. The value of Michaelis–Menten ( K m ) constant obtained as 0.141 mM indicates high affinity of immobilized GOx towards the substrate (glucose).
TL;DR: Environmental Monitoring Ajeet Kaushik,*,†,‡ Rajesh Kumar,*,‡,§ Sunil K. Arya, Madhavan Nair,† B. D. Malhotra, and Shekhar Bhansali.
Abstract: Environmental Monitoring Ajeet Kaushik,*,†,‡ Rajesh Kumar,*,‡,§ Sunil K. Arya, Madhavan Nair,† B. D. Malhotra, and Shekhar Bhansali‡ †Center for Personalized Nanomedicine, Institute of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, Department of Immunology, Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33199, United States ‡Bio-MEMS Microsystems Laboratory, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, College of Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, Florida 33174, United States Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014, India Bioelectronics Program, Institute of Microelectronics, A*Star, 11 Science Park Road, Singapore Science Park II, Singapore Department of Biotechnology, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Delhi 110042, India
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …
TL;DR: The advent of AuNP as a sensory element provided a broad spectrum of innovative approaches for the detection of metal ions, small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, malignant cells, etc. in a rapid and efficient manner.
Abstract: Detection of chemical and biological agents plays a fundamental role in biomedical, forensic and environmental sciences1–4 as well as in anti bioterrorism applications.5–7 The development of highly sensitive, cost effective, miniature sensors is therefore in high demand which requires advanced technology coupled with fundamental knowledge in chemistry, biology and material sciences.8–13 In general, sensors feature two functional components: a recognition element to provide selective/specific binding with the target analytes and a transducer component for signaling the binding event. An efficient sensor relies heavily on these two essential components for the recognition process in terms of response time, signal to noise (S/N) ratio, selectivity and limits of detection (LOD).14,15 Therefore, designing sensors with higher efficacy depends on the development of novel materials to improve both the recognition and transduction processes. Nanomaterials feature unique physicochemical properties that can be of great utility in creating new recognition and transduction processes for chemical and biological sensors15–27 as well as improving the S/N ratio by miniaturization of the sensor elements.28 Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) possess distinct physical and chemical attributes that make them excellent scaffolds for the fabrication of novel chemical and biological sensors (Figure 1).29–36 First, AuNPs can be synthesized in a straightforward manner and can be made highly stable. Second, they possess unique optoelectronic properties. Third, they provide high surface-to-volume ratio with excellent biocompatibility using appropriate ligands.30 Fourth, these properties of AuNPs can be readily tuned varying their size, shape and the surrounding chemical environment. For example, the binding event between recognition element and the analyte can alter physicochemical properties of transducer AuNPs, such as plasmon resonance absorption, conductivity, redox behavior, etc. that in turn can generate a detectable response signal. Finally, AuNPs offer a suitable platform for multi-functionalization with a wide range of organic or biological ligands for the selective binding and detection of small molecules and biological targets.30–32,36 Each of these attributes of AuNPs has allowed researchers to develop novel sensing strategies with improved sensitivity, stability and selectivity. In the last decade of research, the advent of AuNP as a sensory element provided us a broad spectrum of innovative approaches for the detection of metal ions, small molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, malignant cells, etc. in a rapid and efficient manner.37 Figure 1 Physical properties of AuNPs and schematic illustration of an AuNP-based detection system. In this current review, we have highlighted the several synthetic routes and properties of AuNPs that make them excellent probes for different sensing strategies. Furthermore, we will discuss various sensing strategies and major advances in the last two decades of research utilizing AuNPs in the detection of variety of target analytes including metal ions, organic molecules, proteins, nucleic acids, and microorganisms.
TL;DR: This review discusses various nanomaterials that have been explored to mimic different kinds of enzymes and covers their kinetics, mechanisms and applications in numerous fields, from biosensing and immunoassays, to stem cell growth and pollutant removal.
Abstract: Over the past few decades, researchers have established artificial enzymes as highly stable and low-cost alternatives to natural enzymes in a wide range of applications. A variety of materials including cyclodextrins, metal complexes, porphyrins, polymers, dendrimers and biomolecules have been extensively explored to mimic the structures and functions of naturally occurring enzymes. Recently, some nanomaterials have been found to exhibit unexpected enzyme-like activities, and great advances have been made in this area due to the tremendous progress in nano-research and the unique characteristics of nanomaterials. To highlight the progress in the field of nanomaterial-based artificial enzymes (nanozymes), this review discusses various nanomaterials that have been explored to mimic different kinds of enzymes. We cover their kinetics, mechanisms and applications in numerous fields, from biosensing and immunoassays, to stem cell growth and pollutant removal. We also summarize several approaches to tune the activities of nanozymes. Finally, we make comparisons between nanozymes and other catalytic materials (other artificial enzymes, natural enzymes, organic catalysts and nanomaterial-based catalysts) and address the current challenges and future directions (302 references).
Los Alamos National Laboratory1, University of Texas at Austin2, United States Department of Energy3, Argonne National Laboratory4, Oak Ridge National Laboratory5, Case Western Reserve University6, Virginia Tech7, Doshisha University8, University of Yamanashi9, Yokohama National University10, Kyoto University11, New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization12, Tokyo Institute of Technology13, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology14
TL;DR: The research focuses on the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in particular, membrane degradation, and he has been involved in NEDO R&D research projects on PEFC durability since 2001.
Abstract: Rod Borup is a Team Leader in the fuel cell program at Los Alamos National Lab in Los Alamos, New Mexico. He received his B.S.E. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Iowa in 1988 and his Ph.D. from the University of Washington in 1993. He has worked on fuel cell technology since 1994, working in the areas of hydrogen production and PEM fuel cell stack components. He has been awarded 12 U.S. patents, authored over 40 papers related to fuel cell technology, and presented over 50 oral papers at national meetings. His current main research area is related to water transport in PEM fuel cells and PEM fuel cell durability. Recently, he was awarded the 2005 DOE Hydrogen Program R&D Award for the most significant R&D contribution of the year for his team's work in fuel cell durability and was the Principal Investigator for the 2004 Fuel Cell Seminar (San Antonio, TX, USA) Best Poster Award. Jeremy Meyers is an Assistant Professor of materials science and engineering and mechanical engineering at the University of Texas at Austin, where his research focuses on the development of electrochemical energy systems and materials. Prior to joining the faculty at Texas, Jeremy workedmore » as manager of the advanced transportation technology group at UTC Power, where he was responsible for developing new system designs and components for automotive PEM fuel cell power plants. While at UTC Power, Jeremy led several customer development projects and a DOE-sponsored investigation into novel catalysts and membranes for PEM fuel cells. Jeremy has coauthored several papers on key mechanisms of fuel cell degradation and is a co-inventor of several patents. In 2006, Jeremy and several colleagues received the George Mead Medal, UTC's highest award for engineering achievement, and he served as the co-chair of the Gordon Research Conference on fuel cells. Jeremy received his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering from the University of California at Berkeley and holds a Bachelor's Degree in Chemical Engineering from Stanford University. Bryan Pivovar received his B.S. in Chemical Engineering from the University of Wisconsin in 1994. He completed his Ph.D. in Chemical Engineering at the University of Minnesota in 2000 under the direction of Profs. Ed Cussler and Bill Smyrl, studying transport properties in fuel cell electrolytes. He continued working in the area of polymer electrolyte fuel cells at Los Alamos National Laboratory as a post-doc (2000-2001), as a technical staff member (2001-2005), and in his current position as a team leader (2005-present). In this time, Bryan's research has expanded to include further aspects of fuel cell operation, including electrodes, subfreezing effects, alternative polymers, hydroxide conductors, fuel cell interfaces, impurities, water transport, and high-temperature membranes. Bryan has served at various levels in national and international conferences and workshops, including organizing a DOE sponsored workshop on freezing effects in fuel cells and an ARO sponsored workshop on alkaline membrane fuel cells, and he was co-chair of the 2007 Gordon Research Conference on Fuel Cells. Minoru Inaba is a Professor at the Department of Molecular Science and Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Doshisha University, Japan. He received his B.Sc. from the Faculty of Engineering, Kyoto University, in 1984 and his M.Sc. in 1986 and his Dr. Eng. in 1995 from the Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University. He has worked on electrochemical energy conversion systems including fuel cells and lithium-ion batteries at Kyoto University (1992-2002) and at Doshisha University (2002-present). His primary research interest is the durability of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), in particular, membrane degradation, and he has been involved in NEDO R&D research projects on PEFC durability since 2001. He has authored over 140 technical papers and 30 review articles. Kenichiro Ota is a Professor of the Chemical Energy Laboratory at the Graduate School of Engineering, Yokohama National University, Japan. He received his B.S.E. in Applied Chemistry from the University of Tokyo in 1968 and his Ph.D. from the University of Tokyo in 1973. He has worked on hydrogen energy and fuel cells since 1974, working on materials science for fuel cells and water electrolysis. He has published more than 150 original papers, 70 review papers, and 50 scientific books. He is now the president of the Hydrogen Energy Systems Society of Japan, the chairman of the Fuel Cell Research Group of the Electrochemical Society of Japan, and the chairman of the National Committee for the Standardization of the Stationary Fuel Cells. ABSTRACT TRUNCATED« less
TL;DR: This review explores different material classes for plasmonic and metamaterial applications, such as conventional semiconductors, transparent conducting oxides, perovskiteOxides, metal nitrides, silicides, germanides, and 2D materials such as graphene.
Abstract: Materials research plays a vital role in transforming breakthrough scientific ideas into next-generation technology. Similar to the way silicon revolutionized the microelectronics industry, the proper materials can greatly impact the field of plasmonics and metamaterials. Currently, research in plasmonics and metamaterials lacks good material building blocks in order to realize useful devices. Such devices suffer from many drawbacks arising from the undesirable properties of their material building blocks, especially metals. There are many materials, other than conventional metallic components such as gold and silver, that exhibit metallic properties and provide advantages in device performance, design flexibility, fabrication, integration, and tunability. This review explores different material classes for plasmonic and metamaterial applications, such as conventional semiconductors, transparent conducting oxides, perovskite oxides, metal nitrides, silicides, germanides, and 2D materials such as graphene. This review provides a summary of the recent developments in the search for better plasmonic materials and an outlook of further research directions.