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Bee Ee Khoo

Bio: Bee Ee Khoo is an academic researcher from Universiti Sains Malaysia. The author has contributed to research in topics: Digital watermarking & Watermark. The author has an hindex of 18, co-authored 56 publications receiving 1465 citations. Previous affiliations of Bee Ee Khoo include Universiti Sains Malaysia Engineering Campus.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new image watermarking scheme based on the Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) that showed a high level of robustness not only against the image processing attacks but also against the geometrical attacks which are considered as difficult attacks to resist.
Abstract: Copyright protection and proof of ownership are two of the main important applications of the digital image watermarking. The challenges faced by researchers interested in digital image watermarking applications lie in the creation of new algorithms to serve those applications and to be resistant to most types of attacks, especially the geometrical attacks. Robustness, high imperceptibility, security, and large capacity are four essential requirements in any watermarking scheme. This paper presents a new image watermarking scheme based on the Redundant Discrete Wavelet Transform (RDWT) and the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The gray scale image watermark was embedded directly in the singular values of the RDWT sub-bands of the host image. The scheme achieved a large capacity due to the redundancy in the RDWT domain and at the same time preserved high imperceptibility due to SVD properties. Embedding the watermarking pixel's values without any modification inside the wavelet coefficient of the host image overcomes the security issue. Furthermore, the experimental results of the proposed scheme showed a high level of robustness not only against the image processing attacks but also against the geometrical attacks which are considered as difficult attacks to resist.

228 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A challenge due to the false positive problem which may be faced by most of SVD-based watermarking schemes has been solved in this work by adopting a digital signature into the watermarked image.

172 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study presents a robust block-based image watermarking scheme based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and human visual system in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain that outperformed several previous schemes in terms of imperceptibility and robustness.
Abstract: Digital watermarking has been suggested as a way to achieve digital protection. The aim of digital watermarking is to insert the secret data into the image without significantly affecting the visual quality. This study presents a robust block-based image watermarking scheme based on the singular value decomposition (SVD) and human visual system in the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) domain. The proposed method is considered to be a block-based scheme that utilises the entropy and edge entropy as HVS characteristics for the selection of significant blocks to embed the watermark, which is a binary watermark logo. The blocks of the lowest entropy values and edge entropy values are selected as the best regions to insert the watermark. After the first level of DWT decomposition, the SVD is performed on the low-low sub-band to modify several elements in its U matrix according to predefined conditions. The experimental results of the proposed scheme showed high imperceptibility and high robustness against all image processing attacks and several geometrical attacks using examples of standard and real images. Furthermore, the proposed scheme outperformed several previous schemes in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The security issue is improved by encrypting a portion of the important information using Advanced Standard Encryption a key size of 192-bits (AES-192).

160 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current state-of-the-art of passive copy-move forgery detection methods are described and the key current issues in developing a robust copy- move forgery detector are identified and the trends of tackling those issues are addressed.

147 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The experimental results show the ability of hiding patient’s data with a very good visual quality, while ROI, the most important area for diagnosis, is retrieved exactly at the receiver side, and the scheme shows some robustness against certain levels of salt and pepper and cropping noise.
Abstract: Authenticating medical images using watermarking techniques has become a very popular area of research, and some works in this area have been reported worldwide recently. Besides authentication, many data-hiding techniques have been proposed to conceal patient’s data into medical images aiming to reduce the cost needed to store data and the time needed to transmit data when required. In this paper, we present a new hybrid watermarking scheme for DICOM images. In our scheme, two well-known techniques are combined to gain the advantages of both and fulfill the requirements of authentication and data hiding. The scheme divides the images into two parts, the region of interest (ROI) and the region of non-interest (RONI). Patient’s data are embedded into ROI using a reversible technique based on difference expansion, while tamper detection and recovery data are embedded into RONI using a robust technique based on discrete wavelet transform. The experimental results show the ability of hiding patient’s data with a very good visual quality, while ROI, the most important area for diagnosis, is retrieved exactly at the receiver side. The scheme also shows some robustness against certain levels of salt and pepper and cropping noise.

132 citations


Cited by
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01 Dec 2004
TL;DR: In this article, a novel technique for detecting salient regions in an image is described, which is a generalization to affine invariance of the method introduced by Kadir and Brady.
Abstract: In this paper we describe a novel technique for detecting salient regions in an image. The detector is a generalization to affine invariance of the method introduced by Kadir and Brady [10]. The detector deems a region salient if it exhibits unpredictability in both its attributes and its spatial scale.

501 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new algorithm for the accurate detection and localization of copy-move forgeries, based on rotation-invariant features computed densely on the image, is proposed, using a fast approximate nearest-neighbor search algorithm, PatchMatch, especially suited for the computation of dense fields over images.
Abstract: We propose a new algorithm for the accurate detection and localization of copy–move forgeries, based on rotation-invariant features computed densely on the image. Dense-field techniques proposed in the literature guarantee a superior performance with respect to their keypoint-based counterparts, at the price of a much higher processing time, mostly due to the feature matching phase. To overcome this limitation, we resort here to a fast approximate nearest-neighbor search algorithm, PatchMatch, especially suited for the computation of dense fields over images. We adapt the matching algorithm to deal efficiently with invariant features, so as to achieve higher robustness with respect to rotations and scale changes. Moreover, leveraging on the smoothness of the output field, we implement a simplified and reliable postprocessing procedure. The experimental analysis, conducted on databases available online, proves the proposed technique to be at least as accurate, generally more robust, and typically much faster than the state-of-the-art dense-field references.

331 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A thorough review of existing types of image steganography and the recent contributions in each category in multiple modalities including general operation, requirements, different aspects, different types and their performance evaluations is provided.

253 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A major focus of this survey is on prediction-error expansion based reversible watermarking techniques, whereby the secret information is hidden in the prediction domain through error expansion.

237 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed algorithm for multiple watermarking based on discrete wavelet transforms, discrete cosine transform and singular value decomposition has been proposed for healthcare applications and has been found to be giving excellent performance for robustness, imperceptibility, capacity and security simultaneously.
Abstract: In this paper, an algorithm for multiple watermarking based on discrete wavelet transforms (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) has been proposed for healthcare applications. For identity authentication purpose, the proposed method uses three watermarks in the form of medical Lump image watermark, the doctor signature/identification code and diagnostic information of the patient as the text watermarks. In order to improve the robustness performance of the image watermark, Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) is applied to the extracted image watermark to reduce the noise effects on the watermarked image. The security of the image watermark is also enhanced by using Arnold transform before embedding into the cover. Further, the symptom and signature text watermarks are also encoded by lossless arithmetic compression technique and Hamming error correction code respectively. The compressed and encoded text watermark is then embedded into the cover image. Experimental results are obtained by varying the gain factor, different sizes of text watermarks and the different cover image modalities. The results are provided to illustrate that the proposed method is able to withstand a different of signal processing attacks and has been found to be giving excellent performance for robustness, imperceptibility, capacity and security simultaneously. The robustness performance of the method is also compared with other reported techniques. Finally, the visual quality of the watermarked image is evaluated by the subjective method also. This shows that the visual quality of the watermarked images is acceptable for diagnosis at different gain factors. Therefore the proposed method may find potential application in prevention of patient identity theft in healthcare applications.

227 citations