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Benedikt Hartmann

Bio: Benedikt Hartmann is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Old Testament & Hebrew. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 4 publications receiving 467 citations.

Papers
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Book
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: The first volume of the English version of this classic reference tool for Bible scholars was published in 1994, and the subsequent publication of the other volumes has made it the standard modern English dictionary for Biblical Hebrew as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The first volume of the English version of this classic reference tool for Bible scholars was published in 1994, and the subsequent publication of the other volumes has made it the standard modern English dictionary for Biblical Hebrew. It is based on the third edition of the Lexicon of Ludwig Koehler and Walter Baumgartner, which has been widely acclaimed as the most up-to-date complete dictionary for the Old Testament and related literature. This complete and unabridged translation has been prepared by Richardson with the co-operation of an international team of Hebrew and Old Testament scholars. Some slight modifications have been introduced to make it more useful to readers in the English speaking world. The appearance of this fifth and final volume means that the complete vocabulary of the Hebrew Bible, including those parts of books which are written in Aramaic, is now available. By extension it also includes those variants from the different textual traditions (Oriental, Samaritan, Septuagint, Ben Sira, Qumran, etc.), as well as parallel expressions in other ancient non-Biblical documents. It combines scholarly thoroughness with easy accessibility, and so the dictionary meets the needs of a wide range of users. The enormous advances that have taken place in the field of Semitic linguistics since the days of the older dictionaries of Classical Hebrew are here well documented and assessed, as well as the often detailed discussions in modern Bible commentaries of words where the meaning is particularly difficult. But the alphabetical ordering of entries rather than the traditional arrangement of words according to their roots maintains a user friendly face, which is particularly helpful to the beginning student, and will also save the advanced user much time. Included in this last volume is an extensive bibliography to cover all the secondary sources to which the original authors made reference. It is hoped that this will be particulary useful, especially when used in combination with the CD-rom version of the Dictionary.

242 citations

Book
01 Jan 1994
TL;DR: An English dictionary for biblical Hebrew on CD-ROM, but provides additional features as well, including article-based navigation, and extensive, language-aware searching of Hebrew and related languages, such as full-text, Boolean and proximity searches.
Abstract: An English dictionary for biblical Hebrew on CD-ROM. It contains all the information in the print edition of the lexicon, but provides additional features as well, including article-based navigation, and extensive, language-aware searching of Hebrew and related languages, such as full-text, Boolean and proximity searches. Furthermore, every "see also" cross reference to other articles in the dictionary are made into hyperlinks. Biblical references are also hyperlinks to biblical texts.

130 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The publication of volume 4 completes the Hebrew part of the lexicon as mentioned in this paper and the object of this volume is in accordance with the three previously published volumes and also with the earlier editions of the work on the Hebrew vocabulary of the Old Testament.
Abstract: The publication of volume 4 completes the Hebrew part of the lexicon. The object of this volume is in accordance with the three previously published volumes and also with the earlier editions of the work on the Hebrew vocabulary of the Old Testament. The vocabulary is recorded as closely as possible to the meaning and its various nuances. The main emphasis lies in the parts of speech (verbs, substantive prepositions and numerals) as well as on first names, place names and regional names. The old translations, such as the Septuagint, the Vulgate, the Targums and the Syriac version are considered as well as the Hebrew-related Semitic languages.

100 citations


Cited by
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Book
01 Jan 1990
TL;DR: This paper found no positive difference in meaning between the pairs, apart from the few cases of collectives/nomina unitatis (# 6 and perhaps # 3) and found that one of the forms occurs in a poetic or elevated style, and the other mainly in an ordinary prosaic style.
Abstract: nouns (## 1–2), parts of body (## 3–4), agricultural terms (## 5–6), words connected with clothing (## 7–8); and pairs of words with initial ma-/mi(## 9– 12; see 5.6), seven of which are from medial-waw roots (## 11–12). He finds no positive difference in meaning between the pairs, apart from the few cases of collectives/nomina unitatis (# 6 and perhaps # 3). 1. המשא / םשא guilt 2. המקנ / םקנ dominion, vengeance 3. הרבא / א רב pinion 4. הרג / רג back 5. הקלח / ח קל territory 6. הציצ / ץיצ blossom 7. הדפא / דופא ephod 8. הרוגח / רוגח loin-covering 9. הנתמ / ןתמ gift 10. תרכממ / מ רכמ ware 11. הרוגמ / רוגמ terror 12. הלוחמ / לוחמ dance In five cases he found that one of the forms occurs in a poetic or elevated style, and the other mainly in an ordinary prosaic style (## 13–17).

573 citations

MonographDOI
24 Oct 2019
TL;DR: Beaujard as mentioned in this paper presents an ambitious and comprehensive global history of the Indian Ocean world, from the earliest state formations to 1500 CE, and shows how Asia and Africa dominated the economic and cultural landscape and the flow of ideas in the pre-modern world, leading to a trans-regional division of labor and an Afro-Eurasian world economy.
Abstract: Europe's place in history is re-assessed in this first comprehensive history of the ancient world, centering on the Indian Ocean and its role in pre-modern globalization. Philippe Beaujard presents an ambitious and comprehensive global history of the Indian Ocean world, from the earliest state formations to 1500 CE. Supported by a wealth of empirical data, full color maps, plates, and figures, he shows how Asia and Africa dominated the economic and cultural landscape and the flow of ideas in the pre-modern world. This led to a trans-regional division of labor and an Afro-Eurasian world economy. Beaujard questions the origins of capitalism and hints at how this world-system may evolve in the future. The result is a reorienting of world history, taking the Indian Ocean, rather than Europe, as the point of departure. Volume II provides in-depth coverage of the period from the seventh century CE to the fifteenth century CE.

130 citations

Book
31 Dec 2005
TL;DR: In all three contexts (Hebrew Bible, archaeology of ancient Israel/Palestine, and ancient Near East), it is argued that the function of lion imagery as well as its main tenor in metaphorical presentations seem primarily dependent on the power and threat that this predatory animal represents.
Abstract: The present study offers a comprehensive analysis of leonine imagery in the Hebrew Bible. After an introduction that discusses God-language and the theological significance of metaphor (Chapter 1), the biblical lion imagery is typed according to naturalistic or metaphorical use, along with various subdivisions (Chapter 2). When metaphorically employed, biblical lion imagery is found with four referents: the self/righteous, the enemy/wicked, the monarch/mighty one, and the deity. An analysis of the lion in the archaeological record of ancient Israel/Palestine from 1500-332 BCE is then offered (Chapter 3). In addition to finds from excavated sites, unprovenanced seals and related onomastica are discussed. The finds show: a) a common association of the lion with the monarch/mighty one and various deities; b) the presence of lion artifacts in cultic and official contexts; and c) evidence of artistic connections to other regions. Given the latter point, the study proceeds to investigate the use of the lion in the art and literature of the ancient Near East (Chapter 4). This vast corpus is organized according to rubric and function, categorizing the attested imagery as to whether it utilizes the lion as a negative image for the enemy or wicked; as a positive image for the monarch/mighty one or victor; or as an image for the gods and/or goddesses. The widespread use of the lion as a guardian of portals and gateways is also considered. In all three contexts (Hebrew Bible, archaeology of ancient Israel/Palestine, and ancient Near East), it is argued that the function of lion imagery as well as its main tenor in metaphorical presentations seem primarily dependent on the power and threat that this predatory animal represents. Chapter 5 brings the comparative data of Chapter 4 into dialogue with the materials presented in Chapters 2-3 in order to cast further light on the different uses of the lion in the Hebrew Bible. Similarities and differences are noted and assessed. It is argued that: 1) the lion as trope of threat and power is relatively stable across the different data sets; 2) the use of the lion with monarch/mighty one is quite different (and muted) in the biblical text when compared to the comparative and archaeological materials; 3) the use of the lion with Yahweh is similar in many ways to the comparative and archaeological contexts; and 4) the use of the lion as an image for the enemy is also similar but somewhat more pronounced in the Hebrew Bible (esp. in the Psalms). Possible explanations for #2 are offered, as is an investigation of Yahweh’s leonine profile. That profile could stem from the storm-god composite Baal-Seth or, more probably, from the tradition of violent leonine goddesses (esp. Sekhmet and/or Ishtar). A third possible source for the imagery is the use of militant lion metaphors in ancient Near Eastern royal inscriptions if, in fact, Israel’s use is not sui generis. Chapter 6 concludes the study by returning to the theological and metaphorical significance of zoomorphic imagery. Three appendices (lion terminology, semantic domain of lion imagery, biblical lion passages) and 483 images round out the volume.

117 citations

07 Jun 2018
TL;DR: Hutchens as mentioned in this paper argues that persecution in Galatians manifests the cosmic conflict between God and the present evil age and uses the theme of cosmic conflict to reshape the perception of the Galatian believers and reveal the danger of the false gospel preached by his opponents.
Abstract: PERSECUTION AND COSMIC CONFLICT IN GALATIANS Joshua Caleb Hutchens, Ph.D. The Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, 2018 Chair: Dr. Thomas R. Schreiner This dissertation argues that persecution in Galatians manifests the cosmic conflict between God and the present evil age. Chapter 1 introduces the reader to the topic of persecution in Galatians and the history of research. Chapter 2 demonstrates that Paul uses the theme of cosmic conflict to place the crisis in Galatia within a broader context of a conflict between God who has inaugurated the new creation within the present time and this present evil age. Chapters 3–4 examine Paul’s theological context. Chapter 3 investigates a theme of cosmic conflict in Genesis, Psalms, Isaiah, and Habakkuk. Chapter 4 examines the theme in other early Jewish texts (Daniel; 1 Enoch; 4 Ezra; 2 Baruch; Jubilees; 1 Maccabees; 2 Maccabees; 4 Maccabees; 1QS; CD; 1QM). This survey reveals that Paul’s iteration of the theme possesses continuity and discontinuity with other authors. Chapter 5 offers a historical reconstruction of the instances of persecution mentioned in Galatians. Four instances of persecution in Galatians are examined: (1) Paul the Persecutor (1:13, 23). (2) Paul the Persecuted (3:1; 4:13, 19; 5:11; 6:17) (3) The Opponents as Potential Targets (6:12) (4) The Persecution of the Galatians (3:4; 4:17–18, 29). Paul uses the theme of persecution to reshape the perception of the Galatian believers and to reveal the danger of the false gospel preached by his opponents. Chapter 6 identifies persecution as a specific manifestation of the cosmic conflict between God and this present evil age. Galatians 4:29 directly connects the phenomenon of persecution with the broader cosmic conflict. Paul does so by identifying typology in Genesis 21:9. In light of this understanding of Paul’s use of Genesis, other significant passages on persecution in Galatians are reexamined to see how they fit within a cosmic conflict reading: 1:13, 23; 3:4; 5:11; 6:12, 17. In conclusion, chapter 7 offers three possible results of Paul’s understanding of persecution as cosmic conflict. It then examines the significance of the thesis for global Christianity today.

96 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the fundamental concepts associated with coinage are abstracted from the various objects that express them, and it is possible to see that a kind of coined metal existed in Cisjordan and other parts of the Near East prior to the traditional "invention" of coinage by the Lydians and Greeks c.600 BC.
Abstract: Summary.Recent finds of hoarded silver in Cisjordan present new material for the consideration of the conceptual history of coined metals. When the fundamental concepts associated with coinage are abstracted from the various objects that express them, it is possible to see that a kind of coined metal existed in Cisjordan and other parts of the Near East prior to the traditional ‘invention’ of coinage by the Lydians and Greeks c.600 BC.1Both hoards and written sources indicate that seals affixed to precious metals at times qualified them in a numismatic sense by guaranteeing weights set to standards as well as controlled composition. What has been characterized as the ‘invention’ of coinage was rather an adaptation of these same principal concepts. The frequency and size of silver hoards from Cisjordan point to a proliferation in the ‘monetary’ use of silver in that region during the Iron Age and suggest a relationship to the overwhelming preference for silver coinages among the Greeks.

80 citations