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Benjamin Kenny

Bio: Benjamin Kenny is an academic researcher from John Hunter Hospital. The author has contributed to research in topics: Knee replacement & Pathologic fracture. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 4 publications receiving 73 citations. Previous affiliations of Benjamin Kenny include Gold Coast Hospital & University of Queensland.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In vitro osteogenic and inflammatory properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-valerate) (PHBV) with various calcium phosphate-reinforcing phases are examined to provide a new strategy for improving the suitability of PHBV-based materials for bone tissue regeneration.
Abstract: The efficacy of composite materials for bone tissue engineering is dependent on the materials' ability to support bone regeneration whilst inducing a minimal inflammatory response. In this study we examined the in vitro ostegenic and inflammatory properties of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-valerate) (PHBV) with various calcium phosphate-reinforcing phases: nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HA); submicron-sized calcined hydroxyapatite (cHA); and submicron-sized beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP), using bioassavs of cultured osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and macrophages. Our study showed that the addition of a nano-sized reinforcing phase to PHBV, whilst improving osteogenic properties, also reduces the proinflammatory response. Proinflammatory responses of RAW264.7/ELM4-eGFP macrophages to PHBV were shown to be markedly reduced by the introduction of a reinforcing phase, with HA/PHBV composites having the lowest inflammatory response. Osteoclasts, whilst able to attach to all the materials, failed to form functional actin rings or resorption pits on any of the materials under investigation. Cultures of osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) readily attached and mineralised on all the materials, with HA/PHBV inducing the highest levels of mineralization. The improved biological performance of HA/PHBV composites when compared with cHA/PHBV and beta-TCP/PHBV composites is most likely a result of the nano-sized reinforcing phase of HA/PHBV and the greater surface presentation of mineral in these composites. Our results provide a new strategy for improving the suitability of PHBV-based materials for bone tissue regeneration. (C) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

72 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Compared with no cast, driving with a short arm cast did not significantly decrease steering ability in a driving simulator, but the effect of hand dominance on these parameters increased.
Abstract: PURPOSE. To test the ability to steer in a driving simulator in subjects with a short arm cast. METHODS. 17 men and 13 women aged 23 to 67 (mean, 37) years who had a valid driver's licence were randomised to the cast-first group (n=16; 7 had the cast on the dominant arm) or the cast-second group (n=14; 8 had the cast on the dominant arm) and drove in a simulator. A short arm plaster-of-Paris cast was applied in a neutral position, allowing free movement of the metacarpophalangeal joints, thumb, and elbow joint. Outcome measures included the number of driving off track instances, the number of crashes, the lap time, and the effect of hand dominance on these parameters. Subjects were asked whether the cast had impeded their steering ability. RESULTS. Subjects with or without a cast were comparable in terms of the number of driving off track instances, number of crashes, and lap time. Compared with no cast, the odds ratio (OR) of a subject in a cast driving off the track was 1.02 (p=0.921) and having a crash was 0.79 (p=0.047). All subjects were 1.23 times more likely to drive off the track in their first lap (OR=2.66, p=0.019). The mean lap time decreased for each consecutive lap from the 2nd to 5th laps. Subjects driving with a cast on the dominant or non-dominant arm were comparable. 26 out of the 30 participants considered that the plaster cast impeded their steering ability. CONCLUSION. Compared with no cast, driving with a short arm cast did not significantly decrease steering ability in a driving simulator.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There is not enough evidence to conclude that visual aids effect length of stay or rehabilitation pathways, but preoperative targeting and rehabilitation for patients with lower functional status may shorten post operative length of patient stay in this institution.
Abstract: Arthroplasty is increasingly performed within Australia, with a 2.7% rate increase of total knee arthroplasty (TKR) over the last year. With an increasing burden on the public health system and increasing waiting lists, all efforts are being made to decrease length of stay and improve the post operative rehabilitation process. There is currently insufficient evidence to make a conclusive statement about visual aids and improved goal attainment post TKR. The purpose of this study is to evaluate one such visual aid clinical photographs of patients knee range of motion (ROM) pre-and post-operatively and their effect on length of stay. Photographs of knee range of motion were obtained pre and post-operatively while the patient was anesthetized. In this study, a randomized, single blinded design allocated patients to either be shown or not shown their photographs on day 1 post operatively. Primary outcome measures were the number of days the patient remained in hospital. Secondary measures were Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index scores, Oxford Knee Scores, American Society of Anesthesiologists Score and knee ROM. Thirty-two patients (3 exclusions) were randomized to the photo group and 27 patients (4 exclusions) were randomized to the no photo group. The median length of stay between groups was not significantly different. Currently there is not enough evidence to conclude that visual aids effect length of stay or rehabilitation pathways. Further assessment with larger cohort groups is needed. Preoperative targeting and rehabilitation for patients with lower functional status may shorten post operative length of patient stay in our institution.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This report describes a pathologic fracture of the patella secondary to destruction by a giant cell tumour, with osteolysis and soft tissue invasion.
Abstract: This report describes a pathologic fracture of the patella secondary to destruction by a giant cell tumour. Diagnosis was made after non-union of a patella fracture, with osteolysis and soft tissue invasion. Delayed union of any fracture should raise the possibility of an underlying pathologic process.

Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review summarizes the most recent advances in the field over the past 4 years, specifically highlighting new and interesting discoveries in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.
Abstract: Utilization of polymers as biomaterials has greatly impacted the advancement of modern medicine. Specifically, polymeric biomaterials that are biodegradable provide the significant advantage of being able to be broken down and removed after they have served their function. Applications are wide ranging with degradable polymers being used clinically as surgical sutures and implants. In order to fit functional demand, materials with desired physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical and degradation properties must be selected. Fortunately, a wide range of natural and synthetic degradable polymers has been investigated for biomedical applications with novel materials constantly being developed to meet new challenges. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the field over the past 4 years, specifically highlighting new and interesting discoveries in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.

1,712 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
20 Mar 2009-Small
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated how the micrometer-scale topography of a surface can influence cell behavior and found that the surface geometry and profile can be optimized to best fit and cell interactions for adequate bone growth, which can be used as nanoscale spacing models for size-dependent cellular response.
Abstract: Studies of biomimetic surfaces in medicine and biomaterial fields have explored extensively how the micrometer-scale topography of a surface controls cell behavior, but only recently has the nanoscale environment received attention as a critical factor for cell behavior. Several investigations of cell interactions have been performed using surface protrusion topographies at the nanoscale; such topographies are typically based on polymer demixing, ordered gold cluster arrays, or islands of adhesive ligands at distinct length scales. Recent work has indicated that the fabrication of ordered TiO2 nanotube layers with controlled diameters can be achieved by anodization of titanium in adequate electrolytes. Such surfaces can almost ideally be used as nanoscale spacing models for size-dependent cellular response. This is particularly important as these studies are carried out on titanium surfaces—a material used for clinical titanium implantations for the purpose of bone, joint, or tooth replacements. Therefore, principles elucidated from this work can guide implant surface modifications toward an optimized surface geometry and profile to best fit and cell interactions for adequate bone growth.

477 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: Degradable biomaterials have been investigated for biomedical applications with novel materials constantly being developed to meet new challenges as mentioned in this paper, and a review summarizes the most recent advances in the field over the past four years, specifically highlighting new and interesting discoveries in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.
Abstract: Utilization of polymers as biomaterials has greatly impacted the advancement of modern medicine. Specifically, polymeric biomaterials that are biodegradable provide the significant advantage of being able to be broken down and removed after they have served their function. Applications are wide ranging with degradable polymers being used clinically as surgical sutures and implants. To fit functional demand, materials with desired physical, chemical, biological, biomechanical, and degradation properties must be selected. Fortunately, a wide range of natural and synthetic degradable polymers has been investigated for biomedical applications with novel materials constantly being developed to meet new challenges. This review summarizes the most recent advances in the field over the past 4 years, specifically highlighting new and interesting discoveries in tissue engineering and drug delivery applications.

275 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nHA based composite biomaterials proved to be promising biomaterial’s for bone tissue engineering and delivery of nHA-based nanocomposites forBone tissue regeneration is reviewed.
Abstract: In recent years, significant development has been achieved in the construction of artificial bone with ceramics, polymers and metals. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is widely used bioceramic material for bone graft substitute owing to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. nHA with chitin, chitosan, collagen, gelatin, fibrin, polylactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid, polyamide, polyvinyl alcohol, polyurethane and polyhydroxybutyrate based composite scaffolds have been explored in the present review for bone graft substitute. This article further reviews the preparative methods, chemical interaction, biocompatibiity, biodegradation, alkaline phosphatase activity, mineralization effect, mechanical properties and delivery of nHA-based nanocomposites for bone tissue regeneration. The nHA based composite biomaterials proved to be promising biomaterials for bone tissue engineering.

273 citations