17 Jun 2014
TL;DR: A new algorithm for selecting the best compromise solution that closely corresponds to the human decision making process is presented and it is shown that the algorithm is capable of identifying good compromise solutions that achieve reasonable trade-offs among conflicting criteria.
Abstract: Most engineering designs involve evaluation of several performance criteria. Usually these criteria conflict with each other and identifying good compromise solutions is difficult. While multi-criteria optimization approaches such as Pareto filtering have been applied to this task, not much attention has been paid to the selection of a single best solution. A new algorithm for selecting the best compromise solution that closely corresponds to the human decision making process is presented in this paper. This algorithm called RR-PARETO3 iteratively eliminates worst solutions according to multiple criteria from a population of possible solutions. A facade design example is selected for illustration and to evaluate the performance of the algorithm. It is shown that the algorithm is capable of identifying good compromise solutions that achieve reasonable trade-offs among conflicting criteria.
TL;DR: The application of an analytic network process (ANP) model indicating the order of priority for high performance criteria that must be taken into account in the assessment of the performance of adaptive facade systems for complex commercial buildings is presented.
Abstract: Decisions taken during the early design of adaptive facades involving kinetic, active and responsive envelope for complex commercial buildings have a substantial effect on inclusive building functioning and the comfort level of inhabitants. This study aims to present the application of an analytic network process (ANP) model indicating the order of priority for high performance criteria that must be taken into account in the assessment of the performance of adaptive facade systems for complex commercial buildings.,The nominal group technique (NGT) stimulating and refining group judgments are used to find and categorize relevant high performance attributes of the adaptive facade systems and their relative pair-wise significance scores. An ANP model is applied to prioritize these high performance objectives and criteria for the adaptive facade systems.,Embodied energy and CO2 emission, sustainability, energy saving, daylight and operation maintenance were as the most likely and crucial high performance criteria. The criteria and the weights presented in this study could be used as guidelines for evaluating the performance of adaptive facade systems for commercial buildings in planning and design phases.,This research primarily provides the required actions and evaluations for design managers in accomplishing a high performance adaptive facade system, with the support of an ANP method. Before beginning the adaptive facade system of a building design process, the design manager must determine the significance of each of these attributes as high performance primacies will affect the results all through the entire design process.,In this research, a relatively innovative, systematic and practical approach is proposed to sustain the decision-making procedure for evaluation of the high performance criteria of adaptive facade systems in complex commercial buildings.
TL;DR: The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) - one of the MCDM methods - is applied by SuperDecisions software to rank three proposed HPGS alternatives for an existing office building in New Cairo, Egypt as a case study in a hot desert climate zone.
Abstract: The energy consumption of fully glazed office buildings is very high due to the heavy cooling loads in summer. Therefore, building designers resort to the High-Performance Glazing System (HPGS) solutions to reduce solar heat gain and save energy. However, the selection of most sustainable HPGS is considered a complicated process because the one criterion decision method - which building designers still tend to use - cannot solve this complexity. Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) analysis can solve this problem and rank the alternatives. In this paper, the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) - one of the MCDM methods - is applied by SuperDecisions software to rank three proposed HPGS alternatives for an existing office building in New Cairo, Egypt as a case study in a hot desert climate zone. Four criteria of sustainability (energy, environmental impacts, cost, and occupant comfort) are assessed and a new weighting method is applied based on LEED rating system to prioritize the alternatives. The ranking results show in the first place the Photovoltaic glazing system followed by the Low-E and Electrochromic glazing systems, respectively with a negligible difference. The Life cycle cost criterion is the major influencer on the ranking results according to the applied sensitivity analysis.
TL;DR: It is necessary to re-examine the evaluation order and evaluation method used as evaluation order may affect optimal results, and develop an optimization system for urban landscapes that allows for collaboration between users.
Abstract: Generally, there are different optimal solutions with regard to urban landscape planning depending on the area and the opinions and characteristics of community residents. Furthermore, when considering urban landscape and/or city-planning regulations, it is important to include residents’ opinions based on voluntary activities like participation in town development on a regional scale and its management. However, residents’ opinions are difficult to quantify, as many do not have specialized knowledge. Therefore, when an administrative body plans a city, a system to include residents’ opinions on urban landscape options is required. In this study, an optimization system for urban landscape design was proposed using an interactive genetic algorithm (IGA). In this system, three properties of an urban landscape, that is, wall surface positions, heights, and building textures, were varied and the resulting urban landscape images, developed using OpenGL, were subjectively evaluated by users. Weighted scores were then calculated using the paired comparison method. In this system, a site of 200 m × 70 m was assumed and 20 buildings were located on 20 m × 20 m lots. The building widths were fixed at 20 m, and wall positions from the sidewalk varied from 10 m to 20 m at 2 m intervals. The building heights varied from 20 m to 40 m at 4 m intervals, and eight building textures were considered. Two simulations were performed: Case 1, in which the three parameters were evaluated simultaneously; and Case 2, in which the three parameters were evaluated individually. The same 10 users participated in both cases. Following completion of each case, questionnaires were administered to users in which they were asked to confirm that the results obtained matched their expectations. The results demonstrated that individual users were satisfied with the results generated based on their evaluations. In both cases, the results were obtained from the optimal results of the system as the result of questionnaires. It is necessary to re-examine the evaluation order and evaluation method used as evaluation order may affect optimal results. Furthermore, since users generated different optimal results, it is necessary to develop an optimization system for urban landscapes that allows for collaboration between users.
TL;DR: In this article , the authors proposed a multi-perspective approach to assess the façade as the key feature for achieving the comfort and performance criteria of a primary school classroom case.
Abstract: School environments have a profound effect on pupils. The building envelope, particularly the façade, has a significant role in determining thermal, visual, acoustic comfort, energy usage and life-cycle cost as it regulates the relationship between the exterior and the interior. Nonetheless, there is a lack of a multi-perspective approach in the literature, assessing the façade as the key feature for achieving the comfort and performance criteria. Therefore, this paper aims at proposing a methodology to determine appropriate facade aperture sizes through examining a primary school classroom case. For the comfort and performance analyses, a typical Turkish primary school classroom was modelled. The aperture size was assumed to vary for the window to wall ratio from 28.54% to 71.34% with seven options. Analysis results revealed that aperture orientation was more important than its size. The smallest aperture was found to be better for visual, acoustic and thermal comfort. The heating setback strategy appeared to be an effective parameter for thermal comfort as much as the aperture size. A multi-criteria decision-making method, modified weighted sum model, was used to assess the results to decide on the appropriate option and also present a methodology that can be used in different cases.