Other affiliations: East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania, Ohio State University, University of Valencia
Bio: Bernard Fried is an academic researcher from Lafayette College. The author has contributed to research in topics: Biomphalaria glabrata & Echinostoma revolutum. The author has an hindex of 41, co-authored 501 publications receiving 8691 citations. Previous affiliations of Bernard Fried include East Stroudsburg University of Pennsylvania & Ohio State University.
Papers published on a yearly basis
18 Apr 2003
TL;DR: This paper presents basic techniques, materials and apparatus theory and mechanism of thin-layer chromatography optimization in TLC sorbents and precoated layers in TLP, as well as applications of thin layer chromatography.
Abstract: Part 1 Principles and practice of thin-layer chromatography: basic techniques, materials and apparatus theory and mechanism of thin-layer chromatography optimization in TLC sorbents and precoated layers in TLC instrumental thin-layer chromatography gradient development in TLC overpressured layer chromatography detection, identification and documentation of chromatogen zones thin-layer chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry basic principles of optical quantitation in TLC preparative layer chromatography thin-layer radiochromatography rod TLC with flame ionization detection automation and robotics in planar chromatography. Part 2 Applications of thin-layer chromatography: amino acids and derivatives peptides and proteins antibiotics carbohydrates inorganics and organometallics enantiomeric separations lipids natural pigments pesticides pharmaceuticals and drugs phenols, aromatic acids and indoles nucleic acid derivatives steroids synthetic dyes toxins hydrophilic vitamins liphophilic vitamins.
01 Jan 2003
TL;DR: This chapter discusses the studies on the biology, life history, infectivity, immunology, pathology, epidemiology, physiology, and biochemistry of Echinostoma and focuses on E. trivolvis, E. caproni, and E. revolutum.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the studies on the biology, life history, infectivity, immunology, pathology, epidemiology, physiology, and biochemistry of Echinostoma . Some studies on other genera of Echinostomatidae are considered as they relate to Echinostoma. The systematics of the 37-collar-spined Echinostoma in the E. revoluturn group is discussed and is based on morphological, biometrical, isoenzymatical, and biological characteristics. The chapter focuses on E. trivolvis, E. caproni, and E. revolutum. Echinostome adults are cosmopolitan, hermaphroditic digeneans that live in the intestines and bile ducts of numerous vertebrate hosts, particularly, aquatic or semi-aquatic birds and mammals. Results derived from the experimental infection of laboratory rodents have provided insight into the pathogenesis of echinostomes. The diagnosis of echinostomiasis is made by recovering the eggs in the feces. The time of deposition of eggs in the feces will vary between species. Species diagnosis is based mainly on the morphological study of the adult worm, which can be obtained after anthelmintic treatment. The transplantation studies and cultivation of Echinostoma in vivo and in vitro are also discussed. The use of echinostomes in physiological, biochemical, and behavioral studies is an untapped resource. Many of the studies done on E. trivolvis need to be performed on E. caproni , E. revohturn , and other echinostomes for comparative purposes. The gross and histopathological effects of echinostome infections are well documented in experimental infections in mice and hamsters.
TL;DR: This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea related to Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, and emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.
Abstract: Food-borne trematodiases still remain a public health problem world-wide, despite changes in eating habits, alterations in social and agricultural practices, health education, industrialization, environmental alteration, and broad-spectrum anthelmintics. Food-borne trematodiases usually occur focally, are still persistently endemic in some parts of the world, and are most prevalent in remote rural places among school-age children, low-wage earners, and women of child-bearing age. Intestinal fluke diseases are aggravated by socio-economic factors such as poverty, malnutrition, an explosively growing free-food market, a lack of sufficient food inspection and sanitation, other helminthiases, and declining economic conditions. Control programs implemented for food-borne zoonoses and sustained in endemic areas are not fully successful for intestinal food-borne trematodiases because of centuries-old traditions of eating raw or insufficiently cooked food, widespread zoonotic reservoirs, promiscuous defecation, and the use of “night soil” (human excrement collected from latrines) as fertilizer. This review examines food-borne intestinal trematodiases associated with species in families of the Digenea: Brachylaimidae, Diplostomidae, Echinostomatidae, Fasciolidae, Gastrodiscidae, Gymnophallidae, Heterophyidae, Lecithodendriidae, Microphallidae, Nanophyetidae, Paramphistomatidae, Plagiorchiidae, and Strigeidae. Because most of the implicated species are in the Echinostomatidae and Heterophyidae, emphasis in the review is placed on species in these families.
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: An Overview of the Biology of Trematodes, B.W. Haseeb and B.P. Thompson Host Recognition by Trematode Miracidia and Cercariae, W.M. Tielens Trem atode Neurobiology, D.G. Maule, and C.J. Shaw Immunobiology of Trem atodes in Vertebrate Hosts.
Abstract: An Overview of the Biology of Trematodes, B. Fried Modes of Transmission of Trematode Infections and Their Control, M.A. Haseeb and B. Fried Excystation and Cultivation of Trematodes, S.W.B. Irwin Structure and Function of Trematode Alimentation, T. Fujino Reproductive Physiology and Behavior of Digenic Trematodes, P.M. Nollen Physiology and Biochemistry of Snail-Larval Trematode Relationships, S.N. Thompson Host Recognition by Trematode Miracidia and Cercariae, W. Haas and B. Haberl Specificity and Immunobiology of Larval Digenean-Snail Associations, C.M. Adema and E.S. Loker Proteases of Trematodes, J.P. Dalton and P.J. Brindley Biochemistry of Trematodes, A.G.M. Tielens Trematode Neurobiology, D.W. Halton, A.G. Maule, and C. Shaw Immunobiology of Trematodes in Vertebrate Hosts, T.K. Graczyk Molecular Biology of Trematodes: Approaches and Applications, D.J. Minchella, R. Sorensen, J. Curtis, and A. Bierberich
TL;DR: The combined effects of environmentally detrimental changes in local land use and alterations in global climate disrupt the natural ecosystem and can increase the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases to the human population.
Abstract: Ecological disturbances exert an influence on the emergence and proliferation of malaria and zoonotic parasitic diseases, including, Leishmaniasis, cryptosporidiosis, giardiasis, trypanosomiasis, schistosomiasis, filariasis, onchocerciasis, and loiasis. Each environmental change, whether occurring as a natural phenomenon or through human intervention, changes the ecological balance and context within which disease hosts or vectors and parasites breed, develop, and transmit disease. Each species occupies a particular ecological niche and vector species sub-populations are distinct behaviourally and genetically as they adapt to man-made environments. Most zoonotic parasites display three distinct life cycles: sylvatic, zoonotic, and anthroponotic. In adapting to changed environmental conditions, including reduced nonhuman population and increased human population, some vectors display conversion from a primarily zoophyllic to primarily anthrophyllic orientation. Deforestation and ensuing changes in landuse, human settlement, commercial development, road construction, water control systems (dams, canals, irrigation systems, reservoirs), and climate, singly, and in combination have been accompanied by global increases in morbidity and mortality from emergent parasitic disease. The replacement of forests with crop farming, ranching, and raising small animals can create supportive habitats for parasites and their host vectors. When the landuse of deforested areas changes, the pattern of human settlement is altered and habitat fragmentation may provide opportunities for exchange and transmission of parasites to the heretofore uninfected humans. Construction of water control projects can lead to shifts in such vector populations as snails and mosquitoes and their parasites. Construction of roads in previously inaccessible forested areas can lead to erosion, and stagnant ponds by blocking the flow of streams when the water rises during the rainy season. The combined effects of environmentally detrimental changes in local landuse and alterations in global climate disrupt the natural ecosystem and can increase the risk of transmission of parasitic diseases to the human population. q 2000 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baylor College of Medicine1, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation2, Imperial College London3, Anglia Ruskin University4, Institut de recherche pour le développement5, University of London6, Johns Hopkins University7, Texas A&M University8, University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center9, Erasmus University Rotterdam10, International Livestock Research Institute11, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute12, Brandeis University13, Case Western Reserve University14, Watford General Hospital15, Stanford University16
TL;DR: The publication of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 and the accompanying collection of Lancet articles in December 2012 provided the most comprehensive attempt to quantify the burden of almost 300 diseases, injuries, and risk factors, including neglected tropical diseases (NTDs).
Abstract: The publication of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010 (GBD 2010) and the accompanying collection of Lancet articles in December 2012 provided the most comprehensive attempt to quantify the burden of almost 300 diseases, injuries, and risk factors, including neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) –. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY), the metric used in the GBD 2010, is a tool which may be used to assess and compare the relative impact of a number of diseases locally and globally –. Table 1 lists the major NTDs as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO)  and their estimated DALYs . With a few exceptions, most of the NTDs currently listed by the WHO  or those on the expanded list from PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases  are disablers rather than killers, so the DALY estimates represent one of the few metrics available that could fully embrace the chronic effects of these infections. Table 1 Estimated DALYs (in millions) of the NTDs from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Disease DALYs from GBD 2010 (numbers in parentheses indicate 95% confidence intervals)  NTDs 26.06 (20.30–35.12) Intestinal nematode infections 5.19 (2.98–8.81) Hookworm disease 3.23 (1.70–5.73) Ascariasis 1.32 (0.71–2.35) Trichuriasis 0.64 (0.35–1.06) Leishmaniasis 3.32 (2.18–4.90) Schistosomiasis 3.31 (1.70–6.26) Lymphatic filariasis 2.78 (1.8–4.00) Food-borne trematodiases 1.88 (0.70–4.84) Rabies 1.46 ((0.85–2.66) Dengue 0.83 (0.34–1.41) African trypanosomiasis 0.56 (0.08–1.77) Chagas disease 0.55 (0.27–1.05) Cysticercosis 0.50 (0.38–0.66) Onchocerciasis 0.49 (0.36–0.66) Trachoma 0.33 (0.24–0.44) Echinococcosis 0.14 (0.07–0.29) Yellow fever <0.001 Other NTDs * 4.72 (3.53–6.35) Open in a separate window * Relapsing fevers, typhus fever, spotted fever, Q fever, other rickettsioses, other mosquito-borne viral fevers, unspecified arthropod-borne viral fever, arenaviral haemorrhagic fever, toxoplasmosis, unspecified protozoal disease, taeniasis, diphyllobothriasis and sparganosis, other cestode infections, dracunculiasis, trichinellosis, strongyloidiasis, enterobiasis, and other helminthiases. Even DALYs, however, do not tell the complete story of the harmful effects from NTDs. Some of the specific and potential shortcomings of GBD 2010 have been highlighted elsewhere . Furthermore, DALYs measure only direct health loss and, for example, do not consider the economic impact of the NTDs that results from detrimental effects on school attendance and child development, agriculture (especially from zoonotic NTDs), and overall economic productivity , . Nor do DALYs account for direct costs of treatment, surveillance, and prevention measures. Yet, economic impact has emerged as an essential feature of the NTDs, which may trap people in a cycle of poverty and disease –. Additional aspects not considered by the DALY metrics are the important elements of social stigma for many of the NTDs and the spillover effects to family and community members , , loss of tourism , and health system overload (e.g., during dengue outbreaks). Ultimately NTD control and elimination efforts could produce social and economic benefits not necessarily reflected in the DALY metrics, especially among the most affected poor communities .
TL;DR: Fasciolopsiasis has become a re-emerging infection in recent years and gastrodiscoidiasis, initially supposed to be restricted to Asian countries, is now being reported in African countries.
Abstract: Fascioliasis and other food-borne trematodiases are included in the list of important helminthiases with a great impact on human development. Six plant-borne trematode species have been found to affect humans: Fasciola hepatica, Fasciola gigantica and Fasciolopsis buski (Fasciolidae), Gastrodiscoides hominis (Gastrodiscidae), Watsonius watsoni and Fischoederius elongatus (Paramphistomidae). Whereas F. hepatica and F. gigantica are hepatic, the other four species are intestinal parasites. The fasciolids and the gastrodiscid cause important zoonoses distributed throughout many countries, while W. watsoni and F. elongatus have been only accidentally detected in humans. Present climate and global changes appear to increasingly affect snail-borne helminthiases, which are strongly dependent on environmental factors. Fascioliasis is a good example of an emerging/re-emerging parasitic disease in many countries as a consequence of many phenomena related to environmental changes as well as man-made modifications. The ability of F. hepatica to spread is related to its capacity to colonise and adapt to new hosts and environments, even at the extreme inhospitality of very high altitude. Moreover, the spread of F. hepatica from its original European range to other continents is related to the geographic expansion of its original European lymnaeid intermediate host species Galba truncatula, the American species Pseudosuccinea columella, and its adaptation to other lymnaeid species authochthonous in the newly colonised areas. Although fasciolopsiasis and gastrodiscoidiasis can be controlled along with other food-borne parasitoses, fasciolopsiasis still remains a public health problem in many endemic areas despite sustained WHO control programmes. Fasciolopsiasis has become a re-emerging infection in recent years and gastrodiscoidiasis, initially supposed to be restricted to Asian countries, is now being reported in African countries.
TL;DR: A large number of pathogens that are directly or indirectly transmitted by rodents are described and a simplified rodent disease model is discussed.
Abstract: Rodents are the most abundant and diversified order of living mammals in the world. Already since the Middle Ages we know that they can contribute to human disease, as black rats were associated with distribution of plague. However, also in modern times rodents form a threat for public health. In this review article a large number of pathogens that are directly or indirectly transmitted by rodents are described. Moreover, a simplified rodent disease model is discussed.
TL;DR: Emphasis has been placed on liver fluke diseases such as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and metorChiasis, as well as on intestinal trematodiasis (the heterophyids and echinostomes), anisakiasis (due to Anisakis simplex larvae), and diphyllobothriasis.
Abstract: The fish-borne parasitic zoonoses have been limited for the most part to populations living in low- and middle-income countries, but the geographical limits and populations at risk are expanding because of growing international markets, improved transportation systems, and demographic changes such as population movements. While many in developed countries will recognize meat-borne zoonoses such as trichinellosis and cysticercosis, far fewer are acquainted with the fish-borne parasitic zoonoses which are mostly helminthic diseases caused by trematodes, cestodes and nematodes. Yet these zoonoses are responsible for large numbers of human infections around the world. The list of potential fish-borne parasitic zoonoses is quite large. However, in this review, emphasis has been placed on liver fluke diseases such as clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and metorchiasis, as well as on intestinal trematodiasis (the heterophyids and echinostomes), anisakiasis (due to Anisakis simplex larvae), and diphyllobothriasis. The life cycles, distributions, epidemiology, clinical aspects, and, importantly, the research needed for improved risk assessments, clinical management and prevention and control of these important parasitic diseases are reviewed.