Author

# Berthold K. P. Horn

Other affiliations: University of Hawaii at Manoa, Purdue University

Bio: Berthold K. P. Horn is an academic researcher from Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Photometric stereo & Image processing. The author has an hindex of 58, co-authored 178 publications receiving 42748 citations. Previous affiliations of Berthold K. P. Horn include University of Hawaii at Manoa & Purdue University.

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this paper, a method for finding the optical flow pattern is presented which assumes that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image, and an iterative implementation is shown which successfully computes the Optical Flow for a number of synthetic image sequences.

10,727 citations

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12 Nov 1981TL;DR: In this article, a method for finding the optical flow pattern is presented which assumes that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image, and an iterative implementation is shown which successfully computes the Optical Flow for a number of synthetic image sequences.

Abstract: Optical flow cannot be computed locally, since only one independent measurement is available from the image sequence at a point, while the flow velocity has two components. A second constraint is needed. A method for finding the optical flow pattern is presented which assumes that the apparent velocity of the brightness pattern varies smoothly almost everywhere in the image. An iterative implementation is shown which successfully computes the optical flow for a number of synthetic image sequences. The algorithm is robust in that it can handle image sequences that are quantized rather coarsely in space and time. It is also insensitive to quantization of brightness levels and additive noise. Examples are included where the assumption of smoothness is violated at singular points or along lines in the image.

8,078 citations

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TL;DR: A closed-form solution to the least-squares problem for three or more paints is presented, simplified by use of unit quaternions to represent rotation.

Abstract: Finding the relationship between two coordinate systems using pairs of measurements of the coordinates of a number of points in both systems is a classic photogrammetric task . It finds applications i n stereoph and in robotics . I present here a closed-form solution to the least-squares problem for three or more paints . Currently various empirical, graphical, and numerical iterative methods are in use . Derivation of the solution i s simplified by use of unit quaternions to represent rotation . I emphasize a symmetry property that a solution to thi s problem ought to possess . The best translational offset is the difference between the centroid of the coordinates i n one system and the rotated and scaled centroid of the coordinates in the other system . The best scale is equal to th e ratio of the root-mean-square deviations of the coordinates in the two systems from their respective centroids . These exact results are to be preferred to approximate methods based on measurements of a few selected points . The unit quaternion representing the best rotation is the eigenvector associated with the most positive eigenvalue o f a symmetric 4 X 4 matrix . The elements of this matrix are combinations of sums of products of correspondin g coordinates of the points .

4,522 citations

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TL;DR: Robot Vision as discussed by the authors is a broad overview of the field of computer vision, using a consistent notation based on a detailed understanding of the image formation process, which can provide a useful and current reference for professionals working in the fields of machine vision, image processing, and pattern recognition.

Abstract: From the Publisher:
This book presents a coherent approach to the fast-moving field of computer vision, using a consistent notation based on a detailed understanding of the image formation process. It covers even the most recent research and will provide a useful and current reference for professionals working in the fields of machine vision, image processing, and pattern recognition.
An outgrowth of the author's course at MIT, Robot Vision presents a solid framework for understanding existing work and planning future research. Its coverage includes a great deal of material that is important to engineers applying machine vision methods in the real world. The chapters on binary image processing, for example, help explain and suggest how to improve the many commercial devices now available. And the material on photometric stereo and the extended Gaussian image points the way to what may be the next thrust in commercialization of the results in this area.
Chapters in the first part of the book emphasize the development of simple symbolic descriptions from images, while the remaining chapters deal with methods that exploit these descriptions. The final chapter offers a detailed description of how to integrate a vision system into an overall robotics system, in this case one designed to pick parts out of a bin.
The many exercises complement and extend the material in the text, and an extensive bibliography will serve as a useful guide to current research.
Errata (164k PDF)

3,783 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a closed-form solution to the least square problem for three or more points is presented, which requires the computation of the square root of a symmetric matrix, and the best scale is equal to the ratio of the root-mean-square deviations of the coordinates in the two systems from their respective centroids.

Abstract: Finding the relationship between two coordinate systems by using pairs of measurements of the coordinates of a number of points in both systems is a classic photogrammetric task. The solution has applications in stereophotogrammetry and in robotics. We present here a closed-form solution to the least-squares problem for three or more points. Currently, various empirical, graphical, and numerical iterative methods are in use. Derivation of a closed-form solution can be simplified by using unit quaternions to represent rotation, as was shown in an earlier paper [ J. Opt. Soc. Am. A4, 629 ( 1987)]. Since orthonormal matrices are used more widely to represent rotation, we now present a solution in which 3 × 3 matrices are used. Our method requires the computation of the square root of a symmetric matrix. We compare the new result with that obtained by an alternative method in which orthonormality is not directly enforced. In this other method a best-fit linear transformation is found, and then the nearest orthonormal matrix is chosen for the rotation. We note that the best translational offset is the difference between the centroid of the coordinates in one system and the rotated and scaled centroid of the coordinates in the other system. The best scale is equal to the ratio of the root-mean-square deviations of the coordinates in the two systems from their respective centroids. These exact results are to be preferred to approximate methods based on measurements of a few selected points.

1,101 citations

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07 Jun 2015TL;DR: Inception as mentioned in this paper is a deep convolutional neural network architecture that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14).

Abstract: We propose a deep convolutional neural network architecture codenamed Inception that achieves the new state of the art for classification and detection in the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2014 (ILSVRC14). The main hallmark of this architecture is the improved utilization of the computing resources inside the network. By a carefully crafted design, we increased the depth and width of the network while keeping the computational budget constant. To optimize quality, the architectural decisions were based on the Hebbian principle and the intuition of multi-scale processing. One particular incarnation used in our submission for ILSVRC14 is called GoogLeNet, a 22 layers deep network, the quality of which is assessed in the context of classification and detection.

40,257 citations

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28,685 citations

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TL;DR: There is a natural uncertainty principle between detection and localization performance, which are the two main goals, and with this principle a single operator shape is derived which is optimal at any scale.

Abstract: This paper describes a computational approach to edge detection. The success of the approach depends on the definition of a comprehensive set of goals for the computation of edge points. These goals must be precise enough to delimit the desired behavior of the detector while making minimal assumptions about the form of the solution. We define detection and localization criteria for a class of edges, and present mathematical forms for these criteria as functionals on the operator impulse response. A third criterion is then added to ensure that the detector has only one response to a single edge. We use the criteria in numerical optimization to derive detectors for several common image features, including step edges. On specializing the analysis to step edges, we find that there is a natural uncertainty principle between detection and localization performance, which are the two main goals. With this principle we derive a single operator shape which is optimal at any scale. The optimal detector has a simple approximate implementation in which edges are marked at maxima in gradient magnitude of a Gaussian-smoothed image. We extend this simple detector using operators of several widths to cope with different signal-to-noise ratios in the image. We present a general method, called feature synthesis, for the fine-to-coarse integration of information from operators at different scales. Finally we show that step edge detector performance improves considerably as the operator point spread function is extended along the edge.

28,073 citations

28 Jul 2005

TL;DR: PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、树突状组胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作�ly.

Abstract: 抗原变异可使得多种致病微生物易于逃避宿主免疫应答。表达在感染红细胞表面的恶性疟原虫红细胞表面蛋白1（PfPMP1）与感染红细胞、内皮细胞、树突状细胞以及胎盘的单个或多个受体作用，在黏附及免疫逃避中起关键的作用。每个单倍体基因组var基因家族编码约60种成员，通过启动转录不同的var基因变异体为抗原变异提供了分子基础。

18,940 citations

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General Motors

^{1}TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe a general-purpose representation-independent method for the accurate and computationally efficient registration of 3D shapes including free-form curves and surfaces, based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, which requires only a procedure to find the closest point on a geometric entity to a given point.

Abstract: The authors describe a general-purpose, representation-independent method for the accurate and computationally efficient registration of 3-D shapes including free-form curves and surfaces. The method handles the full six degrees of freedom and is based on the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm, which requires only a procedure to find the closest point on a geometric entity to a given point. The ICP algorithm always converges monotonically to the nearest local minimum of a mean-square distance metric, and the rate of convergence is rapid during the first few iterations. Therefore, given an adequate set of initial rotations and translations for a particular class of objects with a certain level of 'shape complexity', one can globally minimize the mean-square distance metric over all six degrees of freedom by testing each initial registration. One important application of this method is to register sensed data from unfixtured rigid objects with an ideal geometric model, prior to shape inspection. Experimental results show the capabilities of the registration algorithm on point sets, curves, and surfaces. >

17,598 citations