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Bhaswati Ganguly

Bio: Bhaswati Ganguly is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Arsenic toxicity & Population. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publication(s) receiving 30 citation(s).
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TL;DR: Those with skin lesions were found to have higher arsenic in urine and hair compared to those without skin lesion with similar arsenic intake through water and diet, while these values were low in people living in non-endemic region (Group-2).
Abstract: Few reports are available that characterize daily arsenic exposure through water and diet among people living in groundwater-contaminated regions and correlate it with biomarkers. The present study describes the total individual arsenic exposure and arsenic level in urine and hair of such an arsenic-exposed population in West Bengal. Demographic characteristics and the total daily arsenic intake through water and diet were determined in 167 (Group-1 participants selected from arsenic endemic region) and 69 (Group-2 participants selected from arsenic non-endemic region) in West Bengal. Out of 167 Group-1 participants 78 (Group-1A) had arsenical skin lesions while 89 Group-1B) had no such lesion. Arsenic level in water samples as well as diet, urine and hair samples, collected from all the individual participants, were estimated. The mean value of estimated total arsenic content from water and diet was 349 (range: 20-1615) μg/day in 167 (Group-1) participants living in As endemic region [As in water: mean value 54 (range:BDL-326) μg/L] and 36 (range:12-120) μg/day in 69 (Group-2) participants living in As non-endemic region (As in water: below detection level (BDL), < 0.3 μg/L). Estimated mean arsenic level in urine in these two groups of participants was 116 (range: 6-526) μg/L and 17 (range: BDL-37) μg/L and in hair was 1.0 (range: 0.22-3.98) mg/Kg and 0.16 (range: 0.06-0.37) mg/Kg, respectively. Multiple regressions analysis in Group-1 participants showed that total arsenic intake was associated significantly with urinary and hair arsenic level. The estimated regression coefficient was 0.0022 (95% confidence interval, C.I: 0.0016, 0.0028; P < 0.001) and 0.0024 (95% C.I: 0.0021, 0.003; P < 0.001), respectively. In sub group analysis, higher median urinary arsenic value relative to arsenic intake through water and diet was observed in 78 Group-1A subjects with skin lesion compared to urinary arsenic value in 89 Group-1B subjects without skin lesions, though there was a marginal difference of median total arsenic intake in these two groups. This study showed that significant elevation of arsenic level in urine and hair was associated with elevated arsenic intake through water and diet in people living in arsenic endemic region (Group-1), while these values were low in people living in non-endemic region (Group-2). Those with skin lesions were found to have higher arsenic in urine and hair compared to those without skin lesion with similar arsenic intake through water and diet.

30 citations


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TL;DR: Comparing and contrast the similarities and differences in arsenic occurrence in West Bengal with those of other parts of the world and assess the unique socio-cultural factors that determine the risks of exposure to arsenic in local groundwater are compared.
Abstract: This paper reviews how active research in West Bengal has unmasked the endemic arsenism that has detrimental effects on the health of millions of people and their offspring. It documents how the pathways of exposure to this toxin/poison have been greatly expanded through intensive application of groundwater in agriculture in the region within the Green Revolution framework. A goal of this paper is to compare and contrast the similarities and differences in arsenic occurrence in West Bengal with those of other parts of the world and assess the unique socio-cultural factors that determine the risks of exposure to arsenic in local groundwater. Successful intervention options are also critically reviewed with emphasis on integrative strategies that ensure safe water to the population, proper nutrition, and effective ways to reduce the transfer of arsenic from soil to crops. While no universal model may be suited for the vast areas of the world affected with by natural contamination of groundwater with arsenic, we have emphasized community-specific sustainable options that can be adapted. Disseminating scientifically correct information among the population coupled with increased community level participation and education are recognized as necessary adjuncts for an engineering intervention to be successful and sustainable.

117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data strongly supports a non-linear dose response for the effects of inorganic arsenic, and in various in vitro and in vivo models and in human epidemiology studies there appears to be a threshold for biological responses, including cancer.
Abstract: Inorganic arsenic induces a variety of toxicities including cancer. The mode of action for cancer and non-cancer effects involves the metabolic generation of trivalent arsenicals and their reaction with sulfhydryl groups within critical proteins in various cell types which leads to the biological response. In epithelial cells, the response is cell death with consequent regenerative proliferation. If this continues for a long period of time, it can result in an increased risk of cancer. Arsenicals do not react with DNA. There is evidence for indirect genotoxicity in various in vitro and in vivo systems, but these involve exposures at cytotoxic concentrations and are not the basis for cancer development. The resulting markers of genotoxicity could readily be due to the cytotoxicity rather than an effect on the DNA itself. Evidence for genotoxicity in humans has involved detection of chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges in lymphocytes and micronucleus formation in lymphocytes, buccal mucosal cells, and exfoliated urothelial cells in the urine. Numerous difficulties have been identified in the interpretation of such results, including inadequate assessment of exposure to arsenic, measurement of micronuclei, and potential confounding factors such as tobacco exposure, folate deficiency, and others. Overall, the data strongly supports a non-linear dose response for the effects of inorganic arsenic. In various in vitro and in vivo models and in human epidemiology studies there appears to be a threshold for biological responses, including cancer.

56 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Hifza Rasheed1, Rebecca Slack1, Paul Kay1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: An up-to-date review of the different sources of arsenic, indicators of human exposure, epidemiological and toxicological studies on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health outcomes, and risk assessment approaches demonstrates a need for more work evaluating the risks of different arsenic species.
Abstract: Millions of people are exposed to arsenic resulting in a range of health implications. This paper provides an up-to-date review of the different sources of arsenic (water, soil, and food), indicators of human exposure (biomarker assessment of hair, nail, urine, and blood), epidemiological and toxicological studies on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic health outcomes, and risk assessment approaches. The review demonstrates a need for more work evaluating the risks of different arsenic species such as, arsenate, arsenite monomethylarsonic acid, monomethylarsonous acid, dimethylarsinic acid, and dimethylarsinous acid as well as a need to better integrate the different exposure sources in risk assessments.

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
M.K. Samantara1, R.K. Padhi1, M. Sowmya1, P. Kumaran1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: A total of 228 groundwater samples were collected at a depth of 10–30 feet below ground level (bgl) during one year period from nineteen wells around Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu, India which is known for nuclear installations. The studied aquifer mainly constitutes of sand and weathered charnockite with thickness varying from 3 to 12 m and is of unconfined nature. Physical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals level were compared with guideline values and water quality index. The order of dominance of cations and anions were; Na + >Ca +2 >Mg +2 >K + and HCO 3 − >Cl − >NO 3 − >SO 4 −2 >PO 4 −3 >Br − >F − . Four major water types (Ca-HCO 3 , Na-Cl, mixed Ca-Na-HCO 3 and mixed Ca-Mg-Cl) were observed. Alkali metals (Na + +K + ) exceeded the alkaline earth (Ca +2 +Mg +2 ) and weak acid (HCO3 − ) exceeded the strong acid (Cl − +SO 4 − ). The order of heavy metals was Zn>Fe>Mn>Ni>Cu. Bureau of Indian Standards compliance of total dissolved solids (26–27%), total alkalinity (35–44%), total hardness (24–27%) and nitrate (41–43%) indicated that most of the samples exceeded the acceptable limit for drinking water. High nitrate level with an average of 104.5 mg/l (82% samples exceeded BIS limit) was observed in the central part of the study area (between Kalpakkam township and nuclear site) and ascribed to the influence of domestic sewage and septic tank effluents. Observed low fluoride values in this study (avg. 0.1 mg/l) contradicted the earlier report of high level of fluoride from this location. Based on the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water Quality Index (CCME WQI), the water quality was classified as marginal to excellent class with a majority falling under fair category. Except for 4–5 wells which were categorized as marginal, the water quality in other wells was suitable for drinking. The studied wells formed spatial distinct groups based on the water quality ranking. The present study provides a comprehensive status of groundwater quality in terms of its suitability for human consumption.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that dietary arsenic intake was a potential pathway of arsenic exposure even where arsenic intake through water was reduced significantly in arsenic endemic region in West Bengal.
Abstract: The authors investigated association of arsenic intake through water and diet and arsenic level in urine in people living in arsenic endemic region in West Bengal supplied with arsenic-safe water (<50 μg L−1). Out of 94 (Group-1A) study participants using water with arsenic level <50 μg L−1, 72 participants (Group-1B) were taking water with arsenic level <10 μg L−1. Multiple regressions analysis conducted on the Group-1A participants showed that daily arsenic dose from water and diet were found to be significantly positively associated with urinary arsenic level. However, daily arsenic dose from diet was found to be significantly positively associated with urinary arsenic level in Group-1B participants only, but no significant association was found with arsenic dose from water in this group. In a separate analysis, out of 68 participants with arsenic exposure through diet only, urinary arsenic concentration was found to correlate positively (r = 0.573) with dietary arsenic in 45 participants with skin les...

24 citations


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Author's H-index: 1

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YearPapers
20131

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