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Bithika Mondal

Bio: Bithika Mondal is an academic researcher from University of Calcutta. The author has contributed to research in topics: Transgender & Sex assignment. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 1 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Aug 2020
TL;DR: Transgender is an umbrella term, used to encompass people who have a gender identity or gender expression which differs from their sex assignment at birth as discussed by the authors, and it is defined as a "person who identifies as a different gender from their assigned sex at birth".
Abstract: Background: Transgender is an umbrella term, used to encompass people who have a gender identity or gender expression, which differs from their sex assignment at birth. Being independent of sexual ...

5 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For years now, the Indian healthcare system has been viewed through the lens of heteronormativity, sidelining sexual and gender minorities as discussed by the authors, and despite the lack of established data, an estimated 45.4 m...
Abstract: For years now, the Indian healthcare system has been viewed through the lens of heteronormativity, sidelining sexual and gender minorities. Despite the lack of established data, an estimated 45.4 m...

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Jul 2022-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: In this article , a questionnaire was administered to 346 study participants aged 15 years and older, living in five urban cities of Bangladesh who self-identified as Hijra, in 2019 and six human rights violation indicators (Economic, Employment, Health, Education, Social and Civic and Political Right) assessed were categorized as binary.
Abstract: Background Hijras in Bangladesh face considerable discrimination, stigma, and violence despite the 2013 legislation that recognized Hijras as a third gender. There is a dearth of published literature describing the extent of human rights violations among this population and their associated factors. Methods A questionnaire was administered to 346 study participants aged 15 years and older, living in five urban cities of Bangladesh who self-identified as Hijra, in 2019. The six human rights violation indicators (Economic, Employment, Health, Education, Social and Civic and Political Right) assessed were categorized as binary. Associations between sociodemographic characteristics and the six human rights violations were tested using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Human right violations including economic, educational, political, employment, health and social/civil right violations were reported in 73.3%, 59.3%, 58.5%, 46.4%, 42.7%, and 34.4% of the participants, respectively. Economic rights violations were associated with bisexuality (Adjusted odds ratios [AOR] 3.60, 95%CI: 1.57, 8.26) and not living with family (AOR 2.71, 95%CI: 1.21, 6.09), while Hijras who earned more than 10,000 Bangladesh Taka experienced higher odds of educational (AOR 2.77, 95%CI: 1.06, 7.19) and political rights violations (AOR 4.30, 95%CI: 1.06, 7.44). Living in Dhaka city was associated with a reduced odds for economic and political rights violation while experiencing violations of one human right could lead to violation of another in the Hijra community. Conclusion Human rights violations were common in Bangladesh Hijras, particularly the Bisexual Hijras. Media and educational awareness campaigns are needed to address the underlying roots of a violation. Programs focused on the families, young people and high-income earners of this community are needed in Bangladesh.

1 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although further testing and refinement is needed, this survey instrument provides an initial and conceptually unique tool for assessing the knowledge, attitude and perception of dentists towards transgender patients.
Abstract: Background Transgender community faces immense amount of adversities including less acceptance from family and friends, lack of employment opportunities, verbal and physical abuse, isolation and rejection. A lack of knowledge about the biology and health needs of transgender community and a generalized aversive attitude against them are a few reasons for this discrimination. In spite of their increased health needs, they face discrimination from health care professionals including dentists. Currently, there are no psychosocial tool for examining the knowledge,Objectives attitude, and perceptions of dentists towards transgender patients. Accordingly, a tool was developed and tested to provide an instrument for measuring the same. A thorough literature review and expert panel analysis of theMethods questions was done followed by pretesting of the tool. The responses were marked on a likert scale .Reliability and factor analysis were performed using SPSS software. The final factor analysis loaded as two factors with nine itemsResults which were defined as emotional and cognitive perception. The present item pool was named as dentist perception questionnaire which can be used to assess the perception of dentists towards transgender patients. Conclusions Although further testing and refinement is needed, this survey instrument provides an initial and conceptually unique tool for assessing the knowledge, attitude and perception of dentists towards transgender patients.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a mixed-method study was conducted during the months of January to June 2019 among 43 study participants to study various modes in which transgenders experience the stigma and discrimination and to understand situations and circumstances under which they are vulnerable toward stigma.
Abstract: ABSTRACT Background: Transgender people experience widespread prejudice discrimination, violence and other harms of stigma and trans-phobia (dislike of or prejudice against trans-sexual or transgender people). To study various modes in which transgenders experience the stigma and discrimination and to understand situations and circumstances under which they are vulnerable toward stigma and discrimination. Materials and Methods: The present study was a mixed-method study which was conducted during the months of January to June 2019 among 43 study participants. Focus group discussion and in-depth interview was conducted with these participants with subsequent transcription. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used for analysis. Results: Transgenders face discrimination and stigma in various setting including education, employment, healthcare, and various public setting. Difficulties in getting government identity cards (ID), facing difficulties in changing ID cards after transition, discrimination in getting bank loan, homelessness, travelling rejections were considered as major obstacles and discrimination by the study participants. Conclusion: Multilevel interventions are needed for transgender populations, including legal protections, improvement of various settings. Inclusive measures should be taken to improve their status focusing on social stigma coupled with psychological pain and economic hardship.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A Study on Depression among Transgender Residing In Chennai District, Tamil Nadu and how to cite this article: Prasanth BK, Mahalakshmi K, Umadevi R, Anantha Eashwar VM; Natl J Community Med 2022;13(2):96-99.
Abstract: Financial Support: None declared Conflict of Interest: None declared Date of Submission: 02-01-2022 Date of Acceptance: 28-01-2022 Date of Publication: 28-02-2022 Correspondence: Dr.VM Anantha Eashwar (Email: eashwaranand@yahoo.in) Copy Right: The Journal retains the copyrights of this article. However, reproduction is permissible with due acknowledgement of the source. National Journal of Community Medicine│Volume 13│Issue 02│February 2022 Page 96 How to cite this article: Prasanth BK, Mahalakshmi K, Umadevi R, Anantha Eashwar VM. A Study on Depression among Transgender Residing In Chennai District, Tamil Nadu. Natl J Community Med 2022;13(2):96-99. DOI: 10.5455/njcm.20220102030123 ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE pISSN 0976 3325│eISSN 2229 6816 Open Access Article (CC BY-SA) www.njcmindia.org DOI: 10.5455/njcm.20220102030123 A Study on Depression among Transgender Residing In Chennai District, Tamil Nadu Krishna Prasanth B1, Mahalakshmi K2, Umadevi R3, Anantha Eashwar VM4 1Research Scholar, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai 2Professor & Head, Department of Microbiology, Sree Balaji Dental College & Hospital, Chennai 3Professor & Head, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical College and Hospital, Chennai 4Assistant Professor, Department of Community Medicine, Sree Balaji Medical and Hospital, Chrompet, Chennai