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Björn Gustafsson

Bio: Björn Gustafsson is an academic researcher from University of Gothenburg. The author has contributed to research in topics: Poverty & China. The author has an hindex of 29, co-authored 136 publications receiving 4108 citations. Previous affiliations of Björn Gustafsson include Stockholm University & Institute for the Study of Labor.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Li et al. as mentioned in this paper investigated the size of China's urban-rural income gap, the gap's contribution to overall inequality in China, and the factors underlying the gap.
Abstract: Using new household survey data for 1995 and 2002, we investigate the size of China's urban–rural income gap, the gap's contribution to overall inequality in China, and the factors underlying the gap. Our analysis improves on past estimates by using a fuller measure of income, adjusting for spatial price differences and including migrants. Our methods include inequality decomposition by population subgroup and the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition. Several key findings emerge. First, the adjustments substantially reduce China's urban–rural income gap and its contribution to inequality. Nevertheless, the gap remains large and has increased somewhat over time. Second, after controlling for household characteristics, location of residence remains the most important factor underlying the urban–rural income gap. The only household characteristic that contributes substantially to the gap is education. Differences in the endowments of, and returns to, other household characteristics such as family size and composition, landholdings, and Communist Party membership are relatively unimportant.

548 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the gender wage gap and its development in urban China were analyzed using two large scale surveys covering 10 provinces for the years 1988 and 1995, and the results indicated that from an international perspective, the women's wage gap appears to be relatively small.
Abstract: The gender wage gap and its development in urban China is analysed utilising two large scale surveys covering 10 provinces for the years 1988 and 1995. The results indicate that from an international perspective, the gender wage gap in urban China appears to be relatively small. It is, however, increasing. Decompositions based on estimated regression-models show that somewhat less than half of the average gender wage gap can be attributed to differences in variables but much less of its increase. The earnings situation of young women and women with limited education has especially deteriorated if compared to men having the same characteristics.

311 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the forces affecting the distribution of income by analyzing an unbalanced panel of information for 16 industrialized countries for the years 1966 through 1994, measuring the Gini coefficient of equivalent disposable income; individuals are the unit of analysis; the statistical analysis uses panel methods.
Abstract: We investigate the forces affecting the distribution of income by analyzing an unbalanced panel of information for 16 industrialized countries for the years 1966 through 1994. Income inequality is measured with the Gini coefficient of equivalent disposable income; individuals are the unit of analysis; the statistical analysis uses panel methods. The results suggest that many factors affect the development of income inequality. Some factors are strictly economic: A decreased industrial sector generally fosters inequality, and some support is found for the view that increased trade of manufactured goods from developing countries is also a factor. Other forces are outside a strictly defined market sphere: Low inequality is found when a large proportion of the labor force belongs to a trade union and also when there is a large public sector. In addition, demographic circumstances are important, since the proportion of the population under age 15 has a positive effect on inequality. We find, however, no association between the unemployment rate and inequality

303 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Despite very different macroeconomic conditions, demographic structures and degrees of income inequality, favorable income changes among low-income families with children were widespread and strikingly similar across the eight countries in this paper.
Abstract: Despite very different macroeconomic conditions, demographic structures and degrees of income inequality, favorable income changes among low-income families with children were widespread and strikingly similar across the eight countries in our study. In most European countries, the combination of modest inequality and extensive mobility among the poor enabled virtually all families to avoid relative income deprivation at least occasionally. However, even substantial mobility among the poor in the Unites States could not elevate the living standards of one in seven white and two in five black families to a level that was half that enjoyed by a typical American family.

235 citations

Book
07 Apr 2008
TL;DR: Li et al. as mentioned in this paper studied the impact of village-specific factors on household income in rural China and the redistributive impact of taxation on rural China, 1995-2002: an evaluation of rural taxation reform at the turn of the century.
Abstract: List of Tables and figures Contributors Acknowledgements 1. Inequality and public policy in China: issues and trends Bjorn Gustafsson, Li Shi, and Terry Sicular 2. Income inequality and spatial differences in China, 1988, 1995, and 2002 Bjorn Gustafsson, Li Shi, Terry Sicular, and Yue Ximing 3. Growth and distribution of household income in China between 1995 and 2002 Azizur Rahman Khan and Carl Riskin 4. Explaining incomes and inequality in China Yue Ximing, Terry Sicular, Li Shi, and Bjorn Gustafsson 5. The distribution of wealth in China Zhao Renwei and Ding Sai 6. Growth, inequality, and poverty: a comparative study of China's experience in the periods before and after the Asian crisis Azizur Rahman Khan 7. What has economic transition meant for the well-being of the elderly in China? Edward Palmer and Deng Quheng 8. Inequality in financing China's health care Wei Zhong and Bjorn Gustafsson 9. China's emerging urban wage structure, 1995-2002 John Knight and Lina Song 10. Unemployment, earlier retirement and changes in the gender income gap in urban China, 1995-2002 Li Shi and Bjorn Gustafsson 11. What determines living arrangements of the elderly in urban China? Meng Xin and Luo Chuliang 12. The impact of village-specific factors on household income in rural China Hiroshi Sato 13. The redistributive impact of taxation in rural China, 1995-2002: an evaluation of rural taxation reform at the turn of the century Hiroshi Sato, Li Shi, and Yue Ximing Appendix: the 1995 and 2002 household surveys: sampling methods and data description Li Shi, Luo Chuliang, Wei Zhong, and Yue Ximing Index.

175 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1981
TL;DR: This chapter discusses Detecting Influential Observations and Outliers, a method for assessing Collinearity, and its applications in medicine and science.
Abstract: 1. Introduction and Overview. 2. Detecting Influential Observations and Outliers. 3. Detecting and Assessing Collinearity. 4. Applications and Remedies. 5. Research Issues and Directions for Extensions. Bibliography. Author Index. Subject Index.

4,948 citations

01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: This article investigated whether income inequality affects subsequent growth in a cross-country sample for 1965-90, using the models of Barro (1997), Bleaney and Nishiyama (2002) and Sachs and Warner (1997) with negative results.
Abstract: We investigate whether income inequality affects subsequent growth in a cross-country sample for 1965-90, using the models of Barro (1997), Bleaney and Nishiyama (2002) and Sachs and Warner (1997), with negative results. We then investigate the evolution of income inequality over the same period and its correlation with growth. The dominating feature is inequality convergence across countries. This convergence has been significantly faster amongst developed countries. Growth does not appear to influence the evolution of inequality over time. Outline

3,770 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discuss three models of resilience, the compensatory, protective, and challenge models, and describe how resilience differs from related concepts, and discuss implications that resilience research has for intervention and describe some resilience-based interventions.
Abstract: Adolescent resilience research differs from risk research by focusing on the assets and resources that enable some adolescents to overcome the negative effects of risk exposure. We discuss three models of resilience-the compensatory, protective, and challenge models-and describe how resilience differs from related concepts. We describe issues and limitations related to resilience and provide an overview of recent resilience research related to adolescent substance use, violent behavior, and sexual risk behavior. We then discuss implications that resilience research has for intervention and describe some resilience-based interventions.

2,245 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1970

1,935 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: A recent literature has constructed top income shares time series over the long run for more than twenty countries using income tax statistics as discussed by the authors, and the estimation methods and issues that arise when constructing top income share series, including income definition and comparability over time and across countries, tax avoidance and tax evasion.
Abstract: A recent literature has constructed top income shares time series over the long run for more than twenty countries using income tax statistics. Top incomes represent a small share of the population but a very significant share of total income and total taxes paid. Hence, aggregate economic growth per capita and Gini inequality indexes are sensitive to excluding or including top incomes. We discuss the estimation methods and issues that arise when constructing top income share series, including income definition and comparability over time and across countries, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. We provide a summary of the key empirical findings. Most countries experience a dramatic drop in top income shares in the first part of the twentieth century in general due to shocks to top capital incomes during the wars and depression shocks. Top income shares do not recover in the immediate postwar decades. However, over the last thirty years, top income shares have increased substantially in English speaking countries and in India and China but not in continental European countries or Japan. This increase is due in part to an unprecedented surge in top wage incomes. As a result, wage income comprises a larger fraction of top incomes than in the past. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and empirical models that have been proposed to account for the facts and the main questions that remain open.

1,647 citations