Bio: Borja Martinovic is an academic researcher from Utrecht University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Ingroups and outgroups & Ethnic group. The author has an hindex of 22, co-authored 55 publications receiving 1577 citations.
TL;DR: In this paper, a theory of preferences, opportunities, and third parties is used for identifying potential predictors of interethnic contact, with panel data collected among Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands.
Abstract: In contrast to previous research on interethnic contact, which is static in nature, this article provides a dynamic analysis. The aim is to explain individuals’ changes in interethnic contact over time by considering relevant time-constant and time-varying characteristics. We investigate the effects of these characteristics measured at time one (t1) on the change in interethnic contact between t1 and time two (t2), thereby providing better estimates of causal relationships. A theory of preferences, opportunities, and third parties is used for identifying potential predictors of interethnic contact. The hypotheses are tested with panel data collected among Turkish, Moroccan, Surinamese, and Antillean immigrants in the Netherlands. The findings show that static research provides good estimates for time-constant characteristics, but it tends to overestimate the role of time-varying characteristics. Moreover, while education, language proficiency, low concentration of immigrants in the neighbourhood, and a native partner clearly lead to the development of more interethnic contact over time, there is indication that these characteristics might just as well be consequences of such contact.
TL;DR: This article examined ethnic majority and minority group adolescents in the Netherlands in relation to ingroup identification, perceived structural discrimination, outgroup friendships and ideological notions, communalism and individualism, and found that the ethnic minority group participants were much more in favor of multiculturalism than the majority group.
Abstract: Questions of multiculturalism and the management of cultural diversity are much debated in many countries. The present research aims to further the understanding of people's attitude toward multiculturalism by examining ethnic majority and minority group adolescents in the Netherlands. In two studies, the endorsement of multiculturalism was examined in relation to ingroup identification, perceived structural discrimination, outgroup friendships (Studies 1 and 2) and the ideological notions, communalism and individualism (Study 2). The ethnic minority group participants were found to be much more in favor of multiculturalism than the majority group. Furthermore, ingroup identification, perceived discrimination, outgroup friendships, and the two ideological notions appeared to be related independently to multiculturalism. However, high ethnic identification was related to lower endorsement of multiculturalism among the majority group and to higher endorsement of multiculturalism among the minority group. In addition, outgroup friendships only had a positive effect on multiculturalism for the majority group. The effects for perceived structural discrimination and communalism were positive and similar for both groups of participants. Individualism had a negative effect on multiculturalism for both groups.
TL;DR: In this paper, a social psychological analysis of immigrants' identification with the country of settlement, that is, their host national identification, is presented, and four conditions that can stimulate or hinder the development of national identification: sociostructural circumstances, perceived discrimination, identity undermining, and in-group norms.
Abstract: This article provides a social psychological analysis of immigrants’ identification with the country of settlement, that is, their host national identification. We first discuss national (dis)identification in relation to dual identity and religion. Subsequently and drawing on acculturation research and the social identity perspective, we discuss four conditions that can stimulate or hinder the development of national identification: sociostructural circumstances, perceived discrimination, identity undermining, and in-group norms. Furthermore, we underline the relevance of studying two largely unexplored yet important consequences of immigrants’ national identification: the evaluations of other minority groups and political involvement. We conclude by recognizing the value of a dual identity and by proposing a number of policies that might facilitate its development. We also discuss the obstacles toward the creation of a harmonious dual identity. These obstacles are related to the way in which the national category is defined and to the four conditions mentioned.
TL;DR: Examination of social identity complexity in relation to Muslim immigrants’ national identification and the attitude toward the host majority in the Netherlands shows that lowerSocial identity complexity is associated with lower national identification.
Abstract: Social identity complexity refers to individual differences in the interrelationships among multiple ingroup identities. The present research conducted in the Netherlands examines social identity complexity in relation to Muslim immigrants' national identification and the attitude toward the host majority. Three studies are reported that focused on the interrelationship between ethnicity and religion and examined social identity complexity in different ways. Study 1 showed that lower social identity complexity is associated with lower national identification. Studies 2 and 3 examined the interaction between ethnic and religious group identification. For Muslim identifiers, higher ethnic identification was related to lower national identification and higher ingroup bias (Studies 2) and lower endorsement of national liberal practices (Study 3). In contrast, for those who did not strongly identify with Muslims, higher ethnic identification was associated with higher national identification, stronger endorsement of Dutch liberal practices, and more positive stereotypes about the Dutch outgroup (Study 3).
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined immigrants' identification with the host country and found that Turkish but not Moroccan immigrants have lower national identification compared to Dutch natives, while Dutch language proficiency, perceived discrimination, and contact with natives proved to be important conditions for national identification.
Abstract: This study examines immigrants' identification with the host country. We use survey data of more than 1,700 Turkish and Moroccan immigrants and more than 2,200 natives in the Netherlands. We answer four main questions in this study. First, do immigrants have lower national identification than natives? Second, does the level of national identification differ between immigrant groups? Third, do economic and social integration similarly affect national identification among immigrants and natives? And fourth, what are important additional determinants of national identification among immigrants? The results show that, compared to Dutch natives, Turkish but not Moroccan immigrants have lower national identification. Being employed and socially integrated is associated with higher national identification among immigrants as well as natives, but only among immigrants is higher occupational status associated with higher national identification. For immigrants, Dutch language proficiency, perceived discrimination, and contact with natives proved to be important conditions for national identification.
01 Jan 1964
TL;DR: In this paper, the notion of a collective unconscious was introduced as a theory of remembering in social psychology, and a study of remembering as a study in Social Psychology was carried out.
Abstract: Part I. Experimental Studies: 2. Experiment in psychology 3. Experiments on perceiving III Experiments on imaging 4-8. Experiments on remembering: (a) The method of description (b) The method of repeated reproduction (c) The method of picture writing (d) The method of serial reproduction (e) The method of serial reproduction picture material 9. Perceiving, recognizing, remembering 10. A theory of remembering 11. Images and their functions 12. Meaning Part II. Remembering as a Study in Social Psychology: 13. Social psychology 14. Social psychology and the matter of recall 15. Social psychology and the manner of recall 16. Conventionalism 17. The notion of a collective unconscious 18. The basis of social recall 19. A summary and some conclusions.
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: The four Visegrad states (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Hungary) form a compact area between Germany and Austria in the west and the states of the former USSR in the east as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The four Visegrad states — Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia (until 1993 Czechoslovakia) and Hungary — form a compact area between Germany and Austria in the west and the states of the former USSR in the east. They are bounded by the Baltic in the north and the Danube river in the south. They are cut by the Sudeten and Carpathian mountain ranges, which divide Poland off from the other states. Poland is an extension of the North European plain and like the latter is drained by rivers that flow from south to north west — the Oder, the Vlatava and the Elbe, the Vistula and the Bug. The Danube is the great exception, flowing from its source eastward, turning through two 90-degree turns to end up in the Black Sea, forming the barrier and often the political frontier between central Europe and the Balkans. Hungary to the east of the Danube is also an open plain. The region is historically and culturally part of western Europe, but its eastern Marches now represents a vital strategic zone between Germany and the core of the European Union to the west and the Russian zone to the east.
TL;DR: The institution of Citizenship in France and Germany is discussed in this article, where Citizenship as Social Closure is defined as social closure and Citizenship as Community of Descent as community of origin.
Abstract: Preface Introduction: Traditions of Nationhood in France and Germany I. The Institution of Citizenship 1. Citizenship as Social Closure 2. The French Revolution and the Invention of National Citizenship 3. State, State-System, and Citizenship in Germany II. Defining The Citizenry: The Bounds of Belonging 4. Citizenship and Naturalization in France and Germany 5. Migrants into Citizens: The Crystallization of Jus Soli in Late-Nineteenth-Century France 6. The Citizenry as Community of Descent: The Nationalization of Citizenship in Wilhelmine Germany 7. \"Etre Francais, Cela se Merite\": Immigration and the Politics of Citizenship in France in the 1980s 8. Continuities in the German Politics of Citizenship Conclusion Notes Bibliography Index
01 Mar 2008
TL;DR: It’s time to get used to the idea that there is no such thing as a “magic bullet”.
Abstract: 中國科技大學通識教育中心英語文證照奬勵金實施要點 中華民國 105 年 1 月 8 日通識教育委員會議通過 一、 中國科技大學(以下簡稱本校)為鼓勵本校學生通過具公信力機構之英語文能力測驗或 取得證照,特訂定「中國科技大學通識教育中心英語文證照獎勵金實施要點」(以下簡 稱本要點)。 二、 學生於就讀本校期間,通過歐盟共同架構(CEFR)語言能力參考指標 B1(中級)同等級英 語文能力測驗以上(含)者,得依據本要點酌予獎勵。檢測項目請參閱本中心「歐洲語言 學習、教學、評量共同參考架構與各英語檢測分級對照表」(參見附表);未列於標準 對照表之測驗項目不給予獎助。 三、 凡本校學生,除應英系外,均得申請。大學部學生通過同等級以申請一次為限,在學期 間得重複申請,但該次申請之級別不得低於前次。 本獎勵金每學期核發乙次,每次核發全校前 10 名,各名次核發金額如附表。 四、 申請人應提供在學期間,申請當(學)期參加考試之證明文件及成績證明或證照,以憑辦 理。 五、 獎勵金申請作業:請至通識教育中心網頁下載「英語文證照獎勵金申請表」(附件 1), 填妥後檢附成績單正本及影本(背面簽名並註明與正本無異)各一份、本人金融帳戶存 簿(郵局或土地銀行)封面影本送至通識教育中心。 通識教育中心得每學期遴選受獎代表,擇期公開頒奬,並辦理後續請款作業。 六、 奬勵金申請期限:通過相關證照考試半年內應提出申請,逾期視同放棄。 七、 本要點之獎勵金由學校開設通識教育中心專戶,一切收支專款專用;每年度如有剩餘 款,則移至翌年度繼續使用。 八、 本要點經通識教育中心會議審查通過,陳請校長核定後公告實施,修訂時亦同。
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: The questionnaires from the field were received, checked and stored by the data processing personnel and checked the completeness of the questionnaires and the correct bubbling.
Abstract: The questionnaires from the field were received, checked and stored by the data processing personnel. They checked: 1. The completeness of the questionnaires 2. The correct bubbling 3. The correct number of questionnaires per household, if total males + total females > 8 as the questionnaire ONLY accommodated maximum of 8 household members. 4. The reference number appears in all the 10 pages of the questionnaires.