Author

# Bradley A. Steinfeldt

Bio: Bradley A. Steinfeldt is an academic researcher from Georgia Institute of Technology. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dynamical systems theory & Mars Exploration Program. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 26 publications receiving 319 citations.

##### Papers

More filters

••

TL;DR: This assessment has shown that negligible propellant mass fraction benefits are seen for reducing the three-sigma position dispersion at the end of the hypersonic guidance phase (parachute deployment) below approximately 3 km.

Abstract: Landing site selection is a compromise between safety concerns associated with the site’s terrain and scientific interest. Therefore, technologies enabling pinpoint landing performance (sub-100-m accuracies) on the surface of Mars are of interest to increase the number of accessible sites for in situ research, as well as allow placement of vehicles nearby prepositioned assets. A survey of the performance of guidance, navigation, and control technologies that could allow pinpoint landing to occur at Mars was performed. This assessment has shown that negligible propellant mass fraction benefits are seen for reducing the three-sigma position dispersion at the end of the hypersonic guidance phase (parachute deployment) below approximately 3 km. Four different propulsive terminal descent guidancealgorithms were examined. Of these four, a near propellant-optimal analytic guidance law showed promisefortheconceptualdesignofpinpointlandingvehicles.Theexistenceofapropellantoptimumwithregardto theinitiationtimeofthepropulsiveterminaldescentwasshowntoexistforvarious flightconditions.Subsonicguided parachutes were shown to provide marginal performance benefits, due to the timeline associated with descent through the thin Mars atmosphere. This investigation also demonstrates that navigation is a limiting technology for Mars pinpoint landing, with landed performance being largely driven by navigation sensor and map tie accuracy.

87 citations

••

14 Sep 2009TL;DR: In this paper, a parametric study of the Mars entry, descent, and landing design space has been conducted, focusing on the entry vehicle shape and the supersonic deceleration technology trades.

Abstract: As the nation sets its sight on returning humans to the Moon and going onward to Mars, landing high mass payloads ( 2 t) on the Mars surface becomes a critical technological need. Viking heritage technologies (e.g., 70 sphere-cone aeroshell, SLA-561V thermal protection system, and supersonic disk-gap-band parachutes) that have been the mainstay of the United States’ robotic Mars exploration program do not provide sucient capability to land such large payload masses. In this investigation, a parametric study of the Mars entry, descent, and landing design space has been conducted. Entry velocity, entry vehicle conguration, entry vehicle mass, and the approach to supersonic deceleration were varied. Particular focus is given to the entry vehicle shape and the supersonic deceleration technology trades. Slender bodied vehicles with a lift-to-drag ratio (L=D) of 0.68 are examined alongside blunt bodies with L=D = 0.30. Results demonstrated that while the increased L=D of a slender entry conguration allows for more favorable terminal descent staging conditions, the greater structural eciencies of blunt body systems along with the reduced acreage required for the thermal protection system aords an inherently lighter vehicle. The supersonic deceleration technology trade focuses on inatable aerodynamic decelerators (IAD) and supersonic retropropulsion, as supersonic parachute systems are shown to be excessively large for further consideration. While entry masses (the total mass at the top of the Mars atmosphere) between 20 and 100 t are considered, a maximum payload capability of 37.3 t results. Of particular note, as entry mass increases, the gain in payload mass diminishes. It is shown that blunt body vehicles provide sucient vertical L=D to decelerate all entry masses considered through the Mars atmosphere with adequate staging conditions for the propulsive terminal descent. A payload mass fraction penalty of approximately 0.3 exists for the use of slender bodied vehicles. Another observation of this investigation is that the increased aerothermal and aerodynamic loads induced from a direct entry trajectory (velocity 6.75 km/s) reduce the payload mass fraction by approximately 15% compared to entry from orbital velocity ( 4 km/s). It should be noted that while both IADs and supersonic retropropulsion were evaluated for each of the entry masses, congurations, and velocities, the IAD proved to be more mass-ecient in all instances. The sensitivity of these results to modeling assumptions was also examined. The payload mass of slender body vehicles was observed to be approximately four times more sensitive to modeling assumptions and uncertainty than blunt bodies.

71 citations

••

18 Aug 2008TL;DR: It is demonstrated that navigation is a limiting technology for Mars pinpoint landing, with overall landed performance being largely driven by navigation sensor and map tie accuracy.

Abstract: Landing site selection is a compromise between safety concerns associated with the site’s terrain and scientific interest. Therefore, technologies enabling pinpoint landing (sub-100 m accuracies) on the surface of Mars are of interest to increase the number of accessible sites for in-situ research as well as allow placement of vehicles nearby prepositioned assets. A survey of various guidance, navigation, and control technologies that could allow pinpoint landing to occur at Mars has shown that negligible propellant mass fraction benefits are seen for reducing the three-sigma position dispersion at parachute deployment below approximately 3 km. Four different propulsive terminal descent guidance algorithms were analyzed with varying applicability to flight. Of these four, a near propellant optimal, analytic guidance law showed promise for the conceptual design of pinpoint landing vehicles. The existence of a propellant optimum with regards to the initiation time of the propulsive terminal descent was shown to exist for various flight conditions. In addition, subsonic guided parachutes are shown to provide marginal performance benefits due to the timeline associated with Martian entries, and a low computational-cost, yet near fuel optimal propulsive terminal descent algorithm is identified. This investigation also demonstrates that navigation is a limiting technology for Mars pinpoint landing, with overall landed performance being largely driven by navigation sensor and map tie accuracy.

28 citations

••

02 Aug 2010TL;DR: In this article, the use of state-dependent Riccati equation control for closed-loop guidance of the hypersonic phase of atmospheric entry is investigated, and an innovative use of sum-of-squares programming is used to solve the state-dependent Riccaci equation with application of a statedependent RCE derived guidance algorithm to a high mass, robotic Mars entry example.

Abstract: This paper investigates the use of state-dependent Riccati equation control for closed-loop guidance of the hypersonic phase of atmospheric entry. Included are a discussion of the development of the state-dependent Riccati equations, their outgrowth from Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman theory, a discussion of the closed-loop nonlinear system’s closed-loop stability and robustness from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint. An innovative use of sum-of-squares programming is used to solve the state-dependent Riccati equation with application of a state-dependent Riccati equation derived guidance algorithm to a high mass, robotic Mars entry example. Algorithm performance is compared to the Modified Apollo Final Phase algorithm planned for use on the Mars Science Laboratory.

24 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the performance and feasibility of a new entry, descent, and landing architecture on Mars, termed Smart Divert, for landing in one of a number of small safe zones surrounded by hazardous terrain.

Abstract: This study investigates the performance and feasibility of a new entry, descent, and landing architecture onMars, termed Smart Divert, for landing in one of a number of small safe zones surrounded by hazardous terrain. Smart Divert consists of a ballistic entry followed by supersonic parachute deployment. After parachute release, the vehicle diverts to one ofmany predefined, fuel-optimal safe zone sites. The Smart Divert concept does not require hypersonic guidance or real-time terrain recognition. Instead, it relies on a priori orbital observations to identify small, multiple safe zones within a larger hazardous region and additional terminal descent propellant to land at the fuel-optimal safe zone.Before launch,mission designers could trade thenumber and size of the safe zones as part of the landing site selection process.Reasonable propellantmass fractions of 0.3 canbe achievedby initiating the divert at 5 kmaltitude, providing a 10 km horizontal divert capability. The number of safe zones is shown to be a function of landing ellipse size. Assuming Mars Science Laboratory state-of-the-art interplanetary navigation, four safe zone sites, randomly placed throughout the landing ellipse to simulate unknowndestinations of futuremissions, require a propellantmass fraction less than 0.3 for 97% of the cases analyzed. The unconstrained optimal arrangement of four safe zone sites within the same landing ellipse reduced the required propellant mass fraction from 0.3 to 0.22. The propellant mass fraction may be further reduced as the number of safe zone sites is increased. An example scenario using rock count data for the Phoenix landing site region demonstrates that Smart Divert can be implemented to land in previously unreachable terrain for a propellant mass fraction of 0.2.

20 citations

##### Cited by

More filters

••

TL;DR: The Foundations of Statistics By Prof. Leonard J. Savage as mentioned in this paper, p. 48s. (Wiley Publications in Statistics.) Pp. xv + 294. (New York; John Wiley and Sons, Inc., London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1954).

Abstract: The Foundations of Statistics By Prof. Leonard J. Savage. (Wiley Publications in Statistics.) Pp. xv + 294. (New York; John Wiley and Sons, Inc.; London: Chapman and Hall, Ltd., 1954.) 48s. net.

844 citations

•

01 Jan 1987

677 citations

••

TL;DR: It is shown that the minimum-landing-error trajectory generation problem can be posed as a convex optimization problem and solved to global optimality with known bounds on convergence time, which makes the approach amenable to onboard implementation for real-time applications.

Abstract: To increase the science return of future missions to Mars and to enable sample return missions, the accuracy with which a lander can be deliverer to the Martian surface must be improved by orders of magnitude. The prior work developed a convex-optimization-based minimum-fuel powered-descent guidance algorithm. In this paper, this convex-optimization-based approach is extended to handle the case when no feasible trajectory to the target exists. In this case, the objective is to generate the minimum-landing-error trajectory, which is the trajectory that minimizes the distance to the prescribed target while using the available fuel optimally. This problem is inherently a nonconvex optimal control problem due to a nonzero lower bound on the magnitude of the feasible thrust vector. It is first proven that an optimal solution of a convex relaxation of the problem is also optimal for the original nonconvex problem, which is referred to as a lossless convexification of the original nonconvex problem. Then it is shown that the minimum-landing-error trajectory generation problem can be posed as a convex optimization problem and solved to global optimality with known bounds on convergence time. This makes the approach amenable to onboard implementation for real-time applications.

301 citations

••

TL;DR: Niven as discussed by the authors argued that a reissue of the collected papers of an outstanding scientific man has been called for, and that the main papers involved must have been of very epoch-making type.

Abstract: IT is not often that a reissue of the collected papers of an outstanding scientific man has been called for. Some of the papers cannot fail to have historical value because of the part which their original publication played in the development of science; but that value alone would not be sufficient to secure the demand. The work involved must be of present-day importance. Therefore its consequences must still be in process of development; and it follows that if, as in the present case, the republication follows the first publication after an interval of half a century, the main papers involved must have been of very epoch-making type. The condition of present value is a sufficient test; but the most essential condition is that of permanent value. Present value persisting after the lapse of fifty years suggests permanence, and at least points to some enduring quality—the direct impress of the distinctive personality of the man. The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell. Edited By W. D. Niven. (Photographic Reprint by arrangement with the Cambridge University Press.) Vol. 1. Pp. xxxii + 607. Vol. 2. Pp. viii + 806. (Paris: J. Hermann, 1927.) 3 livres 6.

277 citations