Braja Gopal Mishra
Other affiliations: Indian Institutes of Technology
Bio: Braja Gopal Mishra is an academic researcher from Indian Institute of Technology Madras. The author has contributed to research in topics: Catalysis & Oxide. The author has an hindex of 11, co-authored 14 publications receiving 535 citations. Previous affiliations of Braja Gopal Mishra include Indian Institutes of Technology.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the effect of ceria in composite oxides for cyclohexanol de-hydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reactions, and showed that the presence of the ceria enhances the surface area and acid-base properties.
Abstract: CeO2–ZnO composite catalysts prepared by amorphous citrate method have been investigated for cyclohexanol dehydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reactions. The precursors and catalysts have been characterized by TGA, CHN analysis, XRD, UV–vis–NIR diffuse reflectance, SEM and acid–base measurements. The amorphous precursors in citrate process contain one molecule of citric acid per Ce4+ or Zn2+ ions. Structural studies of composite oxides indicate the presence of individual oxide phases along with non-equilibrium solid solutions in a limited composition range. The composite oxides contain low coordination Ce3+ and Ce4+ sites. Cyclohexanone was obtained as main product for cyclohexanol transformation reaction carried out over these mixed oxide catalysts due to dehydrogenation on basic sites. The presence of ceria in the composite oxide enhances the surface area and acid–base properties facilitating the dehydrogenation process. At low ceria content, the CeO2–ZnO composite oxide catalysts show higher catalytic activity for both cyclohexanol dehydrogenation and hydrogen transfer reactions due to higher basicity, surface area and smaller crystallite sizes. Hydrogen transfer activity is found to be higher on CeO2(10%)–ZnO catalyst prepared by citrate method compared to the catalyst prepared by decomposition from acetate precursor. This study demonstrates the promoting effect of ceria in CeO2–ZnO catalysts for reactions involving acid–base sites.
TL;DR: In this article, surface and catalytic properties of Cu-Ce-O composite materials prepared by solution combustion method have been investigated by X-ray diffraction, temperature programmed reduction and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Abstract: Surface and catalytic properties of Cu–Ce–O composite materials prepared by solution combustion method have been investigated. The materials are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), temperature programmed reduction (TPR) and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The results of EPR and TPR show finely dispersed Cu2+ species on ceria matrix with low copper content. The Cu2+ species exists in the form of dimers and clusters which are not evident in XRD. In addition CuO is also present as small clusters which grow to larger size at higher Cu content. There is no evidence of CuO forming a solid solution with fluorite CeO2 in combustion method. The Cu2+ species mostly appear on surface rather than in the bulk. Hydrogen peroxide decomposition kinetics has been carried out on Cu–Ce–O composite materials to investigate the effect of crystalline and well-dispersed copper oxide phases on CeO2. From kinetic results, the catalyst materials can be grouped into highly dispersed as well as crystalline CuO phases present on CeO2 matrix. Two parallel compensating lines for dispersed and crystalline CuO phases on CeO2 are observed in ln A versus Ea plot indicating the compensation effect in H2O2 decomposition. This observation is consistent with XRD and EPR results.
TL;DR: In this paper, the physicochemical properties of Zr-pillared clays have been evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared (IR), UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-VIS-DRS), and sorptometric studies.
Abstract: Preparation, characterization and catalytic activity of Zr-pillared clays with different pillar density, starting from Ni 2+ exchanged clay, are described. The physicochemical characteristics of the pillared clays have been evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), infrared (IR), UV–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–VIS-DRS) and sorptometric studies. The decrease in the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the Ni 2+ exchanged clay depends upon the pretreatment temperature. The migration of the Ni 2+ ions into vacant octahedral sites was observed in IR spectroscopy. The acidity of the pillared clays was calculated from TG analysis of the adsorbed n -butyl amine. Alkylation of phenol with methanol was carried out over these catalysts. Good correlation was observed between the alkylation activity and acidity of the pillared materials. Both O and C-alkylation was observed during the reaction. The pillared materials with lesser pillar density were found to be more selective towards anisole which can be attributed to the control in acidic properties of the materials.
TL;DR: In this paper, a solution combustion synthesis has been used for the preparation of finely dispersed copper oxide, copper and copper-nickel bimetallic particles, and the structure and morphology of the materials are studied by XRD and SEM techniques.
Abstract: Solution combustion synthesis has been used for the preparation of finely dispersed copper oxide, copper and copper–nickel bimetallic particles. The structure and morphology of the materials are studied by XRD and SEM techniques. The fuel content in the combustion mixture is found to be a crucial factor in controlling the formation of oxide and metal particles. Starting with copper nitrate trihydrate as oxidizer (O) and carbohydrazide as fuel (F), we obtained CuO (F/O=0.75–1), mixed valence copper oxides, CuO+Cu2O, (F/O=1.0–1.5) and metallic Cu (F/O=2). At very low fuel content (F/O=0.5), a polymeric phase of copper hydroxide nitrate is isolated from the combustion residue. We also report the use of a new organic fuel N-tertiarybutoxy-carbonylpiperazine for the preparation of Cu, Ni and CuNi bimetallic particles.
TL;DR: In this article, the environment, location and interaction of the Ce 3+ ions in the micropores of Al and Zr-pillared clays have been studied by UV-vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UVvis-DRS).
Abstract: The environment, location and interaction of the Ce 3+ ions in the micropores of Al- and Zr-pillared clays have been studied by UV–vis-diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis-DRS). The DRS spectra show that the chemical environment of the Ce 3+ ions in cerium exchanged clay is different from that of the Al- and Zr-pillared clays. The Al–Ce pillared clays (Al–Ce-PM) show four distinct absorption bands at 224, 263, 294 and 342 nm in the UV region which are attributed to 4f → 5d interconfigurational transitions of Ce 3+ ions associated with alumina pillars. The O 2− → Ce 3+ charge transfer band observed at 263 nm for Ce-exchanged and Al–Ce-PM clays is blue shifted by 10 nm for Ce–Zr-pillared clays (Ce–Zr-PM) due to fully hydrated Ce 3+ ions. The Ce 3+ ions are incorporated in the Al- and Zr-pillars possibly as AlCeO 3 and Ce x Zr 1− x O 2 particles upon heat treatment.
TL;DR: In this article, a review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.
Abstract: Emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is one of the major contributors to air pollution. The main sources of VOCs are petroleum refineries, fuel combustions, chemical industries, decomposition in the biosphere and biomass, pharmaceutical plants, automobile industries, textile manufacturers, solvents processes, cleaning products, printing presses, insulating materials, office supplies, printers etc. The most common VOCs are halogenated compounds, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, aromatic compounds, and ethers. High concentrations of these VOCs can cause irritations, nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Some VOCs are also carcinogenic for both humans and animals. Therefore, it is crucial to minimize the emission of VOCs. Among the available technologies, the catalytic oxidation of VOCs is the most popular because of its versatility of handling a range of organic emissions under mild operating conditions. Due to that fact, there are numerous research initiatives focused on developing advanced technologies for the catalytic destruction of VOCs. This review discusses recent developments in catalytic systems for the destruction of VOCs. Review also describes various VOCs and their sources of emission, mechanisms of catalytic destruction, the causes of catalyst deactivation, and catalyst regeneration methods.
TL;DR: This Review focuses on the analysis of new approaches and results in the field of solution combustion synthesis (SCS) obtained during recent years, emphasizing the chemical mechanisms that are responsible for rapid self-sustained combustion reactions.
Abstract: Solution combustion is an exciting phenomenon, which involves propagation of self-sustained exothermic reactions along an aqueous or sol–gel media. This process allows for the synthesis of a variety of nanoscale materials, including oxides, metals, alloys, and sulfides. This Review focuses on the analysis of new approaches and results in the field of solution combustion synthesis (SCS) obtained during recent years. Thermodynamics and kinetics of reactive solutions used in different chemical routes are considered, and the role of process parameters is discussed, emphasizing the chemical mechanisms that are responsible for rapid self-sustained combustion reactions. The basic principles for controlling the composition, structure, and nanostructure of SCS products, and routes to regulate the size and morphology of the nanoscale materials are also reviewed. Recently developed systems that lead to the formation of novel materials and unique structures (e.g., thin films and two-dimensional crystals) with unusual...
TL;DR: The article discusses oxidation catalysis by substitutional cation doping of binary oxides by assuming that the 'as-prepared' catalyst is a doped oxide that, under reducing reaction conditions, is converted to very small metallic dopant clusters supported on the host oxide.
Abstract: The article discusses oxidation catalysis by substitutional cation doping of binary oxides. Substitutional cation doping is not the only possibility. One can imagine that replacing some anions with other anions may also be beneficial. There is evidence that the presence of small amounts of halogen in the feed or on the oxide surface improves its catalytic activity. It is very likely that doped oxide catalysts have been used before the concept was formulated explicitly. Most oxide catalysts have low levels of impurities that may be substitutional dopants. If they segregate at the surface, they can affect the catalytic activity without our knowledge even though their net concentration is very low. It is also possible that the 'as-prepared' catalyst is a doped oxide that, under reducing reaction conditions, is converted to very small metallic dopant clusters supported on the host oxide. The physical and chemical properties of such clusters are different from those of a bulk metal, and it is difficult to distinguish them from a doped oxide.
TL;DR: The optimized and highly efficient ZnO/CeO2 (90:10) nanocomposite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance for the degradation of methyl orange, methylene blue, and phenol as well as industrial textile effluent compared to ZNO, CeO2 and the other investigated nanocomPOSites.
Abstract: In this study, pure ZnO, CeO2 and ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposites were synthesized using a thermal decomposition method and subsequently characterized using different standard techniques. High-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements confirmed the oxidation states and presence of Zn(2+), Ce(4+), Ce(3+) and different bonded oxygen species in the nanocomposites. The prepared pure ZnO and CeO2 as well as the ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposites with various proportions of ZnO and CeO2 were tested for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange, methylene blue and phenol under visible-light irradiation. The optimized and highly efficient ZnO/CeO2 (90:10) nanocomposite exhibited enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance for the degradation of methyl orange, methylene blue, and phenol as well as industrial textile effluent compared to ZnO, CeO2 and the other investigated nanocomposites. Moreover, the recycling results demonstrate that the ZnO/CeO2 (90:10) nanocomposite exhibited good stability and long-term durability. Furthermore, the prepared ZnO/CeO2 nanocomposites were used for the electrochemical detection of uric acid and ascorbic acid. The ZnO/CeO2 (90:10) nanocomposite also demonstrated the best detection, sensitivity and performance among the investigated materials in this application. These findings suggest that the synthesized ZnO/CeO2 (90:10) nanocomposite could be effectively used in various applications.
TL;DR: In this paper, a urea combustion method was used to evaluate the performance of a mixture of CuO and CeO 2 catalysts in the oxidation of ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene.
Abstract: CuO–CeO 2 catalysts were prepared via a urea combustion method and their performance in the oxidation of ethanol, ethyl acetate and toluene was evaluated. XRD, H 2 -TPR and N 2 physisorption were employed in catalyst characterization. The specific surface area of mixed materials was higher than the one of single oxides. In ceria-rich materials, crystalline copper oxide phases are absent and segregation of a CuO phase takes place at atomic Cu/(Cu + Ce) ratios higher than 0.25. The mixed oxides get reduced by H 2 at lower temperatures than the corresponding single oxides and copper ions promote reduction of ceria. Ethanol gets more easily oxidized than ethyl acetate, which in turn gets more easily oxidized than toluene. CuO–CeO 2 catalysts of low copper content produce very low amounts of acetaldehyde during ethanol and ethyl acetate oxidation at all conversion levels. This is augmented by the presence of water in the feed. The specific activity of Cu x Ce 1− x catalysts in the oxidation of ethanol, ethylacetate and toluene (specific rate of volatile organic compound (VOC) consumption) is lower than the one of pure CuO and CeO 2 , i.e. combination of the two phases leads to suppression of intrinsic activity. On the other hand, the specific rate of CO 2 production during ethanol and ethyl acetate oxidation is also lower over CuO–CeO 2 than over CeO 2 , but higher than over CuO. The larger surface area of CuO–CeO 2 catalysts counterbalances their smaller specific activity allowing complete VOC conversion at lower temperatures compared to the single oxides.