Bio: Branka Grbec is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Water column & Thermohaline circulation. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 76 publications receiving 1483 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of California, San Diego1, San Diego State University2, National Research Council3, United States Naval Research Laboratory4, University of Washington5, University of Zagreb6, Marche Polytechnic University7, Centre for Maritime Research and Experimentation8, United States Geological Survey9
TL;DR: In this paper, a winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic, and the results showed that wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern adriatic.
Abstract:  A winter oceanographic field experiment provided an opportunity to examine the atmospheric marine conditions over the northern Adriatic. Mean February winds are from a northeasterly direction over most of the Adriatic and a more northerly direction along the western coast. Wind speeds are fastest in jets over the NE coast during bora events and weakest in the mid-northwestern Adriatic. Diurnal air temperature cycles are smallest on the NE coast and largest in the midwestern Adriatic. The maximum sea-air difference is +10°C on the eastern coast and near zero on the midwestern Adriatic. Boras are northeasterly (from) wind events that sweep off Croatia and Slovenia, bringing slightly colder and drier air over the northern Adriatic. The main bora season is December to March. Winter 2002–2003 was normal for bora events. Synoptic-scale temporal variations are correlated over the northern Adriatic. Fastest Bora winds and highest wind stress over the northern Adriatic is concentrated in four topographically controlled jets. The strongest is the Senj Jet, while the Trieste Jet extends across the entire northern Adriatic. Between each two jets is a weak wind zone. The greatest mean net heat loss is in bora jets in the NE Adriatic, where it was −438 W m−2 and is weakest in the midwestern northern Adriatic, where it was near zero. Wind stress is concentrated over the NE half of Adriatic in four bora jets, while wind stress is weak in the NW Adriatic. There is significant variation in wind stress mean and standard deviation structure over the northern Adriatic with each bora event.
TL;DR: In this article, a simple numerical model reproducing response of the Adriatic-Mediterranean system to the wintertime forcing was developed, which supported the occurrence of two distinctive EAC maxima.
Abstract:  Measurements performed in winter 2002/2003 and spring 2003 off the east Adriatic coast showed that the East Adriatic Current (EAC) peaked in January/February (as expected from previous findings) and again in May (not expected). The first maximum corresponded with the considerable cross-shore variability of seawater properties, the colder, fresher water prevailing close to the coast, the warmer, saltier water dominating the open sea. The second maximum coincided with the massive intrusion of warm, saline water from the south Adriatic. Meteorological and hydrologic forcing was anomalous over the measurement interval: during winter 2002/2003 the cooling and river outflows were strong, during spring 2003 the pronounced warming coincided with exceptional dryness. In order to interpret the two EAC maxima a simple numerical model reproducing response of the Adriatic-Mediterranean system to the wintertime forcing was developed. It was found that the first maximum could be related to the coastal freshwater input and offshore evaporation in the Adriatic area, and that the second maximum was probably due to the wintertime surface cooling of the Adriatic while warmer conditions prevailed above the Mediterranean. The resulting horizontal density gradients supported two different circulation systems, one within the Adriatic, the other between the Adriatic and east Mediterranean, and they differed not only in spatial but also in temporal scales, therefore supporting the occurrence of two distinctive EAC maxima.
TL;DR: In this article, the main climate oscillation period was approximately 80 yr and an interrelation between climatic fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere and small pelagic fish landing data was found.
Abstract: In order to establish the connection between the hydroclimate variables and pelagic species, year-to-year fluctuations of small pelagic fish landings in the eastern Adriatic coast were compared to climatic fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere and to salinity fluctuations in the Adriatic. Using this approach, basic climatic oscillations were determined for both hydroclimate and biological data. The main climate oscillation period was approximately 80 yr and an interrelation between climatic fluctuations over the Northern Hemisphere and small pelagic fish landing data was found. The results suggest a linkage between the advection of Levantine Intermediate Water, which is controlled by the pressure distribution over the wider area, and fish abundance in the Adriatic Sea.
TL;DR: Diatoms were the most abundant functional group and they prevailed during the colder part of the year while the dinoflagellate contribution to the phytoplankton community increased in the warmer period from May to August.
Abstract: Evaluation of a 45-year data set of primary production (PP), a 30-year data set of phytoplankton biomass, and a 51-year data set of species composition shows an increase of phytoplankton biomass and abundance in the period from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s. Phytoplankton biomass showed bimodal seasonal cycles, with winter and spring maxima, which did not change over the past 30 years. Diatoms were the most abundant functional group and they prevailed during the colder part of the year while the dinoflagellate contribution to the phytoplankton community increased in the warmer period from May to August. Diatoms showed a significant negative correlation with sea surface temperature (SST), while dinoflagellates were positively correlated with SST. An increase of phytoplankton abundance, particularly dinoflagellate, in the period from the mid-1980s to the mid-1990s coincided with years characterized by a high North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index. Primary production and chlorophyll a concentration in the spring period were negatively correlated with the NAO winter (DJFM) index, probably caused by increased precipitation associated with a low or negative NAO index. PP in winter during the mixing period was positively related to the NAO winter index associated with higher temperatures and dry conditions which brought more clear days and increased input of solar radiation.
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features was analyzed.
Abstract: Summary This study shows the influence of eutrophication pressure on the phytoplankton community structure, abundance and biodiversity in the investigated bays with different hydromorphological features. Sibenik Bay is a highly stratified estuary of the karstic river Krka; Kastela Bay is a semi-enclosed coastal bay, which is influenced by the relatively small river Jadro; and Mali Ston Bay is located at the Neretva River estuary, the largest river on the eastern part of the Adriatic Sea. All of the areas are affected by urban pressure, which is reflected in the trophic status of the waters. The greatest anthropogenic influence was found in Kastela Bay while the lowest influence was found in Mali Ston Bay. In this study, the highest biomass concentration and maximum abundance of phytoplankton were recorded at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence. Those stations show a dominance of abundance compared to the biomass and a dominance of opportunistic species, which is reflected in the lower biodiversity of phytoplankton community. Diatoms were the most represented group of the phytoplankton community in all three bays, followed by the dinoflagellates. Diatoms that were highlighted as significant for the difference between the bays were Skeletonema marinoi in Sibenik Bay, Leptocylindrus minimus in Kastela Bay and the genus Chaetoceros spp. in Mali Ston Bay. Dinoflagellates were more abundant at the stations under the strongest anthropogenic influence, and most significant were Prorocentrum triestinum in Kastela Bay and Gymnodinium spp. in Sibenik Bay and Mali Ston Bay.
01 Jan 1980
14 May 2010
TL;DR: Overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and major changes and threats were assessed, and temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity.
Abstract: Trabajo presentado en el 39th CIESM Congress, celebrado en Venecia, Italia, del 10 al 14 de mayo de 2010
Spanish National Research Council1, Dalhousie University2, University of British Columbia3, University of Freiburg4, University of Montpellier5, University of Genoa6, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki7, National Institute of Oceanography, India8, Oranim Academic College9, WorldFish10, University of Seville11, University of the Basque Country12, University of Thessaly13
TL;DR: In this article, the authors combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists.
Abstract: The Mediterranean Sea is a marine biodiversity hot spot. Here we combined an extensive literature analysis with expert opinions to update publicly available estimates of major taxa in this marine ecosystem and to revise and update several species lists. We also assessed overall spatial and temporal patterns of species diversity and identified major changes and threats. Our results listed approximately 17,000 marine species occurring in the Mediterranean Sea. However, our estimates of marine diversity are still incomplete as yet—undescribed species will be added in the future. Diversity for microbes is substantially underestimated, and the deep-sea areas and portions of the southern and eastern region are still poorly known. In addition, the invasion of alien species is a crucial factor that will continue to change the biodiversity of the Mediterranean, mainly in its eastern basin that can spread rapidly northwards and westwards due to the warming of the Mediterranean Sea. Spatial patterns showed a general decrease in biodiversity from northwestern to southeastern regions following a gradient of production, with some exceptions and caution due to gaps in our knowledge of the biota along the southern and eastern rims. Biodiversity was also generally higher in coastal areas and continental shelves, and decreases with depth. Temporal trends indicated that overexploitation and habitat loss have been the main human drivers of historical changes in biodiversity. At present, habitat loss and degradation, followed by fishing impacts, pollution, climate change, eutrophication, and the establishment of alien species are the most important threats and affect the greatest number of taxonomic groups. All these impacts are expected to grow in importance in the future, especially climate change and habitat degradation. The spatial identification of hot spots highlighted the ecological importance of most of the western Mediterranean shelves (and in particular, the Strait of Gibraltar and the adjacent Alboran Sea), western African coast, the Adriatic, and the Aegean Sea, which show high concentrations of endangered, threatened, or vulnerable species. The Levantine Basin, severely impacted by the invasion of species, is endangered as well. This abstract has been translated to other languages (File S1).
01 Jan 1973