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Brenda J. Lutz

Bio: Brenda J. Lutz is an academic researcher from Indiana University – Purdue University Fort Wayne. The author has contributed to research in topics: Terrorism & Globalization. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 46 publications receiving 271 citations. Previous affiliations of Brenda J. Lutz include Indiana University & Indiana University – Purdue University Indianapolis.

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06 Sep 2005

32 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In other cases targets are seen as being chosen for their symbolic importance to the audience the terroris... as mentioned in this paper The choice of targets for terrorist attacks is often considered to be random or illogical.
Abstract: The choice of targets for terrorist attacks is often considered to be random or illogical. In other cases targets are seen as being chosen for their symbolic importance to the audience the terroris...

28 citations

22 Mar 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focus on how effective terrorism has been and how successful it has been in achieving some of its goals, including the goal of changing the distribution of power in the world.
Abstract: How Successful Is Terrorism? Terrorism has become a frightening phenomenon and a concern for many governments and citizens around the world. A great number of important debates about terrorism have appeared as a consequence. There are major related to the definition of terrorism, causes of terrorism, and evaluations of terrorism that attempt to determine whether terrorism has been successful or not. The present analysis will focus on of how effective terrorism has been. Many have argued that terrorism inevitably fails to achieve its objective or that it only works in very special or exceptional circumstances. Others have argued that terrorism has been much more successful. These different views will be presented below as a backdrop to a consideration of a variety of circumstances in which terrorist organizations have been able to achieve at least some of their goals. Of course, whether or not terrorism succeeds or appears to succeed is important for governments, their publics, and for anyone analyzing the phenomenon. The cases will be subdivided for purposes of discussion into nationalist or ethnic struggles (including those with religious overtones), more clearly religious struggles, and then conflicts involving ideological terrorist organizations. Further, a more general consideration of cases where terrorist organizations have sought to achieve shorter-term or tactical goals with their attacks will be included. Finally, some concluding thoughts about the relative success of terrorism as a technique for achieving political goals will be offered. If terrorism is a successful technique for groups to use, it would also suggest that the success is a cause of terrorism. Definitions There has been much discussion about a working definition of terrorism, and many have been offered. While the debate over definition is important in many respects, a fairly common but comprehensive definition is used in the present study, and it is also consistent with many other definitions commonly used. It consists of the following six parts: (1) terrorism has political objectives; (2) it relies on violence or the threat of violence; (3) it has a target audience beyond the immediate victims; (4) it involves organization and is not just the actions of isolated individuals (5) it involves a non-state actor as the perpetrator or the target or both; and (6) it is a weapon of the weak designed to change the distribution of power (Claridge, 1996; Enders and Sandler, 2006, p. 5; Hoffman, 2006, Chap. 1; Lutz and Lutz, 2005, p. 7). This definition would include actions such as bank robberies and kidnappings undertaken to finance an organization with political objectives, but would exclude similar actions by criminal groups that are designed to generate profits in what is basically an entrepreneurial activity. The need for a target audience is a key defining characteristic of terrorism since the violence is designed to strike fear into a broader group. Terrorism is ultimately a form of psychological warfare that is directed against this target audience (Chalk, 1996, p. 13; Wilkinson, 1977, p. 81). The violence involved is designed to break the spirit of some group or groups and the immediate victims are a means of sending a message to that audience (Gaucher, 1968, p. 298). Organization is also required in order for a group to attempt to achieve its political objectives. Isolated actions by individuals such as Theodore Kaczynski, the Unabomber, can be ambivalent cases. But his anti-modernization attacks failed when he was caught, thus ending the threat because individuals acting alone are almost inevitably doomed to failure. Individuals operating within the loosely organized networks or within the context of leaderless resistance structures, however, do qualify since they are acting within a broad framework. They share an effort to achieve common political objectives within the context of an at least tacit alliance based on shared political views (Hoffman, 2001, p. …

25 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the relationship between the degree of openness (democracy) and international terrorist activity from 1972 to 1995 in approximately 100 countries was investigated, and it was shown that democratic political systems provide greater opportunities for terrorist groups and create permissive environments in which terrorist networks operate more easily.
Abstract: It has been suggested that democratic political systems provide greater opportunities for terrorist groups and create permissive environments in which terrorist networkscan operate more easily. While the argument has a solid logical grounding that has been widely accepted, empirical tests of the connection between democracy and terrorism have been few and not very comprehensive in scope. The analysis below will consider the relationship between the degree of openness (democracy) and international terrorist activity from 1972 to 1995 in approximately 100 countries. The results should shed light on whether democratic political systems actually contribute to the activities of terrorist groups.

24 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found no evidence that terrorism negatively impacted tourism in individual countries, but studies with a larger number of countries have found less evidence for this negative link between terrorism and tourism, and they concluded that there is no evidence for terrorism negatively affecting tourism.
Abstract: Previous studies have found evidence that terrorism negatively impacted tourism in individual countries, but studies with larger number of countries have found less evidence for this negative linka...

21 citations


Cited by
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TL;DR: Pape as discussed by the authors examines the misperceptions about and motivations behind suicide terrorism in his book, Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism, and uses empirical data and a multidisciplinary approach to support his argument that suicide terrorism is used to meet the secular and strategic goal of compelling the withdrawal of military forces.
Abstract: Robert Pape thoroughly examines the misperceptions about and motivations behind suicide terrorism in his book, Dying to Win: The Strategic Logic of Suicide Terrorism. He uses empirical data and a multidisciplinary approach to support his argument that suicide terrorism is used to meet the secular and strategic goal of compelling the withdrawal of military forces.

638 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conceptualized terrorism in relation to international business and developed a theoretical grounding for terrorism research by drawing on the literature from IB, economics, political science, and other fields.
Abstract: Terrorism threatens international business (IB) through its direct and indirect effects. As governments tighten security at public sites, businesses have become more attractive terrorist targets, with important implications for the operations and performance of multinational firms. While terrorism has been substantially studied in other fields, there has been little scholarly research to address terrorism and the distinctive challenges that it poses for IB. In this article we conceptualize terrorism in relation to IB. We provide background on the dimensions and effects of terrorism, and develop a theoretical grounding for terrorism research by drawing on the literature from IB, economics, political science, and other fields. After discussing findings from the literature review, we offer a comprehensive agenda for future research regarding the relationship between terrorism and IB. Our agenda emphasizes the effects of terrorism, organizational preparedness, company strategy and performance, global supply chain and distribution channels, and human resource issues. Our review helps establish a baseline for future empirical research. Consistent with the early stages of research, IB scholars are encouraged to offer useful perspectives and effective solutions that shed needed light on terrorism and help reduce its destructive effects for IB and multinational firms.

196 citations