Breno de Medeiros
Bio: Breno de Medeiros is an academic researcher from Florida State University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Cryptography & Key (cryptography). The author has an hindex of 20, co-authored 34 publications receiving 2442 citations. Previous affiliations of Breno de Medeiros include Google & Johns Hopkins University.
••17 May 2009
TL;DR: This paper discusses a new method that generates password structures in highest probability order by automatically creating a probabilistic context-free grammar based upon a training set of previously disclosed passwords, and then generating word-mangling rules to be used in password cracking.
Abstract: Choosing the most effective word-mangling rules to use when performing a dictionary-based password cracking attack can be a difficult task In this paper we discuss a new method that generates password structures in highest probability order We first automatically create a probabilistic context-free grammar based upon a training set of previously disclosed passwords This grammar then allows us to generate word-mangling rules, and from them, password guesses to be used in password cracking We will also show that this approach seems to provide a more effective way to crack passwords as compared to traditional methods by testing our tools and techniques on real password sets In one series of experiments, training on a set of disclosed passwords, our approach was able to crack 28% to 129% more passwords than John the Ripper, a publicly available standard password cracking program
••12 Sep 2005
TL;DR: A sanitizable signature as discussed by the authors allows authorized semi-trusted censors to modify parts of a signed message without interacting with the original signer, in a limited and controlled fashion.
Abstract: We introduce the notion of sanitizable signatures that offer many attractive security features for certain current and emerging applications. A sanitizable signature allows authorized semi-trusted censors to modify – in a limited and controlled fashion – parts of a signed message without interacting with the original signer. We present constructions for this new primitive, based on standard signature schemes and secure under common cryptographic assumptions. We also provide experimental measurements for the implementation of a sanitizable signature scheme and demonstrate its practicality.
••07 Nov 2005
TL;DR: A new cryptographic primitive is introduced, called insubvertible encryption, that produces ciphertexts which can be randomized without the need of any key material, which enables post-sale applications of manufacturer-issued RFID tags while preserving the privacy of consumers.
Abstract: We introduce a new cryptographic primitive, called insubvertible encryption, that produces ciphertexts which can be randomized without the need of any key material. Unlike plain universal re-encryption schemes, insubvertible encryption prevents against adversarial exploitation of hidden channels, by including certificates proving that the ciphertext can only be decrypted by authorized parties.The scheme can be applied to RFID tags, providing strong protection against tracing. This enables post-sale applications of manufacturer-issued RFID tags while preserving the privacy of consumers. The functionality required of the RFID tags is minimal, namely that they be re-writable (many-writable). No cryptographic capabilities are required of the tags themselves, as the readers perform all necessary computations.
••09 Feb 2004
TL;DR: The first identity-based chameleon hash function was proposed in this paper, which is based on the hash-and-sign paradigm and is similar in efficiency to regular signatures.
Abstract: Chameleon signatures are non-interactive signatures based on a hash-and-sign paradigm, and similar in efficiency to regular signatures. The distinguishing characteristic of chameleon signatures is that their are non-transferable, with only the designated recipient capable of asserting its validity. In this paper, we introduce the first identity-based chameleon hash function. The general advantages of identity-based cryptography over conventional schemes relative to key distribution are even more pronounced in a chameleon hashing scheme, because the owner of a public key does not necessarily need to retrieve the associated secret key. We use the identity-based chameleon hashing scheme to build the id-based chameleon signature and a novel sealed-bid auction scheme that is robust, communication efficient (bidders send a single message), and secure under a particular trust model.
••20 Mar 2007
TL;DR: This paper extends the universally composable framework for RFID authentication protocols to address forward-security issues in the presence of key compromise, and introduces new, provably secure, and highly practical protocols for anonymous authentication and key-exchange by RFID devices.
Abstract: Recently, a universally composable framework for RFID authentication protocols providing availability, anonymity, and authenticity was proposed. In this paper we extend that framework to address forward-security issues in the presence of key compromise.We also introduce new, provably secure, and highly practical protocols for anonymous authentication and key-exchange by RFID devices. The new protocols are lightweight, requiring only a pseudo-random bit generator. The new protocols satisfy forward-secure anonymity, authenticity, and availability requirements in the Universal Composability model.
TL;DR: This survey examines approaches proposed by scientists for privacy protection and integrity assurance in RFID systems, and treats the social and technical context of their work.
Abstract: This paper surveys recent technical research on the problems of privacy and security for radio frequency identification (RFID). RFID tags are small, wireless devices that help identify objects and people. Thanks to dropping cost, they are likely to proliferate into the billions in the next several years-and eventually into the trillions. RFID tags track objects in supply chains, and are working their way into the pockets, belongings, and even the bodies of consumers. This survey examines approaches proposed by scientists for privacy protection and integrity assurance in RFID systems, and treats the social and technical context of their work. While geared toward the nonspecialist, the survey may also serve as a reference for specialist readers.
22 Sep 2008
TL;DR: In this article, a provably secure storage outsourced data possession (PDP) technique based on symmetric key cryptography was proposed, which allows outsourcing of dynamic data, such as block modification, deletion and append.
Abstract: Storage outsourcing is a rising trend which prompts a number of interesting security issues, many of which have been extensively investigated in the past. However, Provable Data Possession (PDP) is a topic that has only recently appeared in the research literature. The main issue is how to frequently, efficiently and securely verify that a storage server is faithfully storing its client's (potentially very large) outsourced data. The storage server is assumed to be untrusted in terms of both security and reliability. (In other words, it might maliciously or accidentally erase hosted data; it might also relegate it to slow or off-line storage.) The problem is exacerbated by the client being a small computing device with limited resources. Prior work has addressed this problem using either public key cryptography or requiring the client to outsource its data in encrypted form.In this paper, we construct a highly efficient and provably secure PDP technique based entirely on symmetric key cryptography, while not requiring any bulk encryption. Also, in contrast with its predecessors, our PDP technique allows outsourcing of dynamic data, i.e, it efficiently supports operations, such as block modification, deletion and append.
TL;DR: A critical analysis of the literature reveals that information privacy is a multilevel concept, but rarely studied as such, and calls for research on information privacy to use a broader diversity of sampling populations and to publish more design and action research in journal articles that can result in IT artifacts for protection or control of information privacy.
Abstract: Information privacy refers to the desire of individuals to control or have some influence over data about themselves. Advances in information technology have raised concerns about information privacy and its impacts, and have motivated Information Systems researchers to explore information privacy issues, including technical solutions to address these concerns. In this paper, we inform researchers about the current state of information privacy research in IS through a critical analysis of the IS literature that considers information privacy as a key construct. The review of the literature reveals that information privacy is a multilevel concept, but rarely studied as such. We also find that information privacy research has been heavily reliant on studentbased and USA-centric samples, which results in findings of limited generalizability. Information privacy research focuses on explaining and predicting theoretical contributions, with few studies in journal articles focusing on design and action contributions. We recommend that future research should consider different levels of analysis as well as multilevel effects of information privacy. We illustrate this with a multilevel framework for information privacy concerns. We call for research on information privacy to use a broader diversity of sampling populations, and for more design and action information privacy research to be published in journal articles that can result in IT artifacts for protection or control of information privacy.
••15 Aug 2004
TL;DR: This work proposes a new and efficient signature scheme that is provably secure in the plain model and provides efficient protocols that allow one to prove in zero-knowledge the knowledge of a signature on a committed (or encrypted) message and to obtain a signatureon a committed message.
Abstract: We propose a new and efficient signature scheme that is provably secure in the plain model. The security of our scheme is based on a discrete-logarithm-based assumption put forth by Lysyanskaya, Rivest, Sahai, and Wolf (LRSW) who also showed that it holds for generic groups and is independent of the decisional Diffie-Hellman assumption. We prove security of our scheme under the LRSW assumption for groups with bilinear maps. We then show how our scheme can be used to construct efficient anonymous credential systems as well as group signature and identity escrow schemes. To this end, we provide efficient protocols that allow one to prove in zero-knowledge the knowledge of a signature on a committed (or encrypted) message and to obtain a signature on a committed message.
••13 Apr 2008
TL;DR: In this article, a general methodology for constructing very simple and efficient non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and noninteractive witness-indistinguishable proofs that work directly for groups with a bilinear map, without needing a reduction to Circuit Satisfiability is presented.
Abstract: Non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and non-interactive witnessindistinguishable proofs have played a significant role in the theory of cryptography. However, lack of efficiency has prevented them from being used in practice. One of the roots of this inefficiency is that non-interactive zeroknowledge proofs have been constructed for general NP-complete languages such as Circuit Satisfiability, causing an expensive blowup in the size of the statement when reducing it to a circuit. The contribution of this paper is a general methodology for constructing very simple and efficient non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs and non-interactive witness-indistinguishable proofs that work directly for groups with a bilinear map, without needing a reduction to Circuit Satisfiability. Groups with bilinear maps have enjoyed tremendous success in the field of cryptography in recent years and have been used to construct a plethora of protocols. This paper provides non-interactive witness-indistinguishable proofs and non-interactive zero-knowledge proofs that can be used in connection with these protocols. Our goal is to spread the use of non-interactive cryptographic proofs from mainly theoretical purposes to the large class of practical cryptographic protocols based on bilinear groups.