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Brent Waters

Other affiliations: Stanford University, Princeton University, SRI International  ...read more
Bio: Brent Waters is an academic researcher from University of Texas at Austin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Encryption & Ciphertext. The author has an hindex of 91, co-authored 264 publications receiving 53691 citations. Previous affiliations of Brent Waters include Stanford University & Princeton University.


Papers
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 May 2007
TL;DR: A system for realizing complex access control on encrypted data that is conceptually closer to traditional access control methods such as role-based access control (RBAC) and secure against collusion attacks is presented.
Abstract: In several distributed systems a user should only be able to access data if a user posses a certain set of credentials or attributes. Currently, the only method for enforcing such policies is to employ a trusted server to store the data and mediate access control. However, if any server storing the data is compromised, then the confidentiality of the data will be compromised. In this paper we present a system for realizing complex access control on encrypted data that we call ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption. By using our techniques encrypted data can be kept confidential even if the storage server is untrusted; moreover, our methods are secure against collusion attacks. Previous attribute-based encryption systems used attributes to describe the encrypted data and built policies into user's keys; while in our system attributes are used to describe a user's credentials, and a party encrypting data determines a policy for who can decrypt. Thus, our methods are conceptually closer to traditional access control methods such as role-based access control (RBAC). In addition, we provide an implementation of our system and give performance measurements.

4,364 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
30 Oct 2006
TL;DR: This work develops a new cryptosystem for fine-grained sharing of encrypted data that is compatible with Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE), and demonstrates the applicability of the construction to sharing of audit-log information and broadcast encryption.
Abstract: As more sensitive data is shared and stored by third-party sites on the Internet, there will be a need to encrypt data stored at these sites. One drawback of encrypting data, is that it can be selectively shared only at a coarse-grained level (i.e., giving another party your private key). We develop a new cryptosystem for fine-grained sharing of encrypted data that we call Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE). In our cryptosystem, ciphertexts are labeled with sets of attributes and private keys are associated with access structures that control which ciphertexts a user is able to decrypt. We demonstrate the applicability of our construction to sharing of audit-log information and broadcast encryption. Our construction supports delegation of private keys which subsumesHierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE).

4,257 citations

Book ChapterDOI
22 May 2005
TL;DR: In this article, a new type of identity-based encryption called Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) was introduced, where an identity is viewed as set of descriptive attributes, and a private key for an identity can decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity if and only if the identities are close to each other as measured by the set overlap distance metric.
Abstract: We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In Fuzzy IBE we view an identity as set of descriptive attributes. A Fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity, ω, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, ω ′, if and only if the identities ω and ω ′ are close to each other as measured by the “set overlap” distance metric. A Fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a Fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that Fuzzy-IBE can be used for a type of application that we term “attribute-based encryption”. In this paper we present two constructions of Fuzzy IBE schemes. Our constructions can be viewed as an Identity-Based Encryption of a message under several attributes that compose a (fuzzy) identity. Our IBE schemes are both error-tolerant and secure against collusion attacks. Additionally, our basic construction does not use random oracles. We prove the security of our schemes under the Selective-ID security model.

3,610 citations

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, a new type of identity-based encryption called Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) was introduced, where an identity is viewed as set of descriptive attributes, and a private key for an identity can decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity if and only if the identities are close to each other as measured by the set overlap distance metric.
Abstract: We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In Fuzzy IBE we view an identity as set of descriptive attributes. A Fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity, ω, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, ω ′, if and only if the identities ω and ω ′ are close to each other as measured by the “set overlap” distance metric. A Fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a Fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that Fuzzy-IBE can be used for a type of application that we term “attribute-based encryption”. In this paper we present two constructions of Fuzzy IBE schemes. Our constructions can be viewed as an Identity-Based Encryption of a message under several attributes that compose a (fuzzy) identity. Our IBE schemes are both error-tolerant and secure against collusion attacks. Additionally, our basic construction does not use random oracles. We prove the security of our schemes under the Selective-ID security model.

3,128 citations

Book ChapterDOI
Brent Waters1
22 May 2005
TL;DR: This work first presents their IBE construction and reduces the security of the scheme to the decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) problem, and shows that their techniques can be used to build a new signature scheme that is secure under the computational Diffie -Hellman assumption without random oracles.
Abstract: We present the first efficient Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that is fully secure without random oracles We first present our IBE construction and reduce the security of our scheme to the decisional Bilinear Diffie-Hellman (BDH) problem Additionally, we show that our techniques can be used to build a new signature scheme that is secure under the computational Diffie-Hellman assumption without random oracles

2,188 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

08 Dec 2001-BMJ
TL;DR: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one, which seems an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality.
Abstract: There is, I think, something ethereal about i —the square root of minus one. I remember first hearing about it at school. It seemed an odd beast at that time—an intruder hovering on the edge of reality. Usually familiarity dulls this sense of the bizarre, but in the case of i it was the reverse: over the years the sense of its surreal nature intensified. It seemed that it was impossible to write mathematics that described the real world in …

33,785 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
Craig Gentry1
31 May 2009
TL;DR: This work proposes a fully homomorphic encryption scheme that allows one to evaluate circuits over encrypted data without being able to decrypt, and describes a public key encryption scheme using ideal lattices that is almost bootstrappable.
Abstract: We propose a fully homomorphic encryption scheme -- i.e., a scheme that allows one to evaluate circuits over encrypted data without being able to decrypt. Our solution comes in three steps. First, we provide a general result -- that, to construct an encryption scheme that permits evaluation of arbitrary circuits, it suffices to construct an encryption scheme that can evaluate (slightly augmented versions of) its own decryption circuit; we call a scheme that can evaluate its (augmented) decryption circuit bootstrappable.Next, we describe a public key encryption scheme using ideal lattices that is almost bootstrappable.Lattice-based cryptosystems typically have decryption algorithms with low circuit complexity, often dominated by an inner product computation that is in NC1. Also, ideal lattices provide both additive and multiplicative homomorphisms (modulo a public-key ideal in a polynomial ring that is represented as a lattice), as needed to evaluate general circuits.Unfortunately, our initial scheme is not quite bootstrappable -- i.e., the depth that the scheme can correctly evaluate can be logarithmic in the lattice dimension, just like the depth of the decryption circuit, but the latter is greater than the former. In the final step, we show how to modify the scheme to reduce the depth of the decryption circuit, and thereby obtain a bootstrappable encryption scheme, without reducing the depth that the scheme can evaluate. Abstractly, we accomplish this by enabling the encrypter to start the decryption process, leaving less work for the decrypter, much like the server leaves less work for the decrypter in a server-aided cryptosystem.

5,770 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
20 May 2007
TL;DR: A system for realizing complex access control on encrypted data that is conceptually closer to traditional access control methods such as role-based access control (RBAC) and secure against collusion attacks is presented.
Abstract: In several distributed systems a user should only be able to access data if a user posses a certain set of credentials or attributes. Currently, the only method for enforcing such policies is to employ a trusted server to store the data and mediate access control. However, if any server storing the data is compromised, then the confidentiality of the data will be compromised. In this paper we present a system for realizing complex access control on encrypted data that we call ciphertext-policy attribute-based encryption. By using our techniques encrypted data can be kept confidential even if the storage server is untrusted; moreover, our methods are secure against collusion attacks. Previous attribute-based encryption systems used attributes to describe the encrypted data and built policies into user's keys; while in our system attributes are used to describe a user's credentials, and a party encrypting data determines a policy for who can decrypt. Thus, our methods are conceptually closer to traditional access control methods such as role-based access control (RBAC). In addition, we provide an implementation of our system and give performance measurements.

4,364 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
30 Oct 2006
TL;DR: This work develops a new cryptosystem for fine-grained sharing of encrypted data that is compatible with Hierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE), and demonstrates the applicability of the construction to sharing of audit-log information and broadcast encryption.
Abstract: As more sensitive data is shared and stored by third-party sites on the Internet, there will be a need to encrypt data stored at these sites. One drawback of encrypting data, is that it can be selectively shared only at a coarse-grained level (i.e., giving another party your private key). We develop a new cryptosystem for fine-grained sharing of encrypted data that we call Key-Policy Attribute-Based Encryption (KP-ABE). In our cryptosystem, ciphertexts are labeled with sets of attributes and private keys are associated with access structures that control which ciphertexts a user is able to decrypt. We demonstrate the applicability of our construction to sharing of audit-log information and broadcast encryption. Our construction supports delegation of private keys which subsumesHierarchical Identity-Based Encryption (HIBE).

4,257 citations

Book ChapterDOI
22 May 2005
TL;DR: In this article, a new type of identity-based encryption called Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) was introduced, where an identity is viewed as set of descriptive attributes, and a private key for an identity can decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity if and only if the identities are close to each other as measured by the set overlap distance metric.
Abstract: We introduce a new type of Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) scheme that we call Fuzzy Identity-Based Encryption. In Fuzzy IBE we view an identity as set of descriptive attributes. A Fuzzy IBE scheme allows for a private key for an identity, ω, to decrypt a ciphertext encrypted with an identity, ω ′, if and only if the identities ω and ω ′ are close to each other as measured by the “set overlap” distance metric. A Fuzzy IBE scheme can be applied to enable encryption using biometric inputs as identities; the error-tolerance property of a Fuzzy IBE scheme is precisely what allows for the use of biometric identities, which inherently will have some noise each time they are sampled. Additionally, we show that Fuzzy-IBE can be used for a type of application that we term “attribute-based encryption”. In this paper we present two constructions of Fuzzy IBE schemes. Our constructions can be viewed as an Identity-Based Encryption of a message under several attributes that compose a (fuzzy) identity. Our IBE schemes are both error-tolerant and secure against collusion attacks. Additionally, our basic construction does not use random oracles. We prove the security of our schemes under the Selective-ID security model.

3,610 citations