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Brett D. Mensh

Bio: Brett D. Mensh is an academic researcher from Howard Hughes Medical Institute. The author has contributed to research in topics: Motor cortex & Cytokine storm. The author has an hindex of 33, co-authored 67 publications receiving 3934 citations. Previous affiliations of Brett D. Mensh include Columbia University & Janelia Farm Research Campus.


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
30 Apr 2015-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that combining mechanosensory and nociceptive cues synergistically enhances the selection of the fastest mode of escape locomotion in Drosophila larvae, and proposed that the multilevel multimodal convergence architecture may be a general feature of multisensory circuits enabling complex input–output functions and selective tuning to ecologically relevant combinations of cues.
Abstract: Natural events present multiple types of sensory cues, each detected by a specialized sensory modality. Combining information from several modalities is essential for the selection of appropriate actions. Key to understanding multimodal computations is determining the structural patterns of multimodal convergence and how these patterns contribute to behaviour. Modalities could converge early, late or at multiple levels in the sensory processing hierarchy. Here we show that combining mechanosensory and nociceptive cues synergistically enhances the selection of the fastest mode of escape locomotion in Drosophila larvae. In an electron microscopy volume that spans the entire insect nervous system, we reconstructed the multisensory circuit supporting the synergy, spanning multiple levels of the sensory processing hierarchy. The wiring diagram revealed a complex multilevel multimodal convergence architecture. Using behavioural and physiological studies, we identified functionally connected circuit nodes that trigger the fastest locomotor mode, and others that facilitate it, and we provide evidence that multiple levels of multimodal integration contribute to escape mode selection. We propose that the multilevel multimodal convergence architecture may be a general feature of multisensory circuits enabling complex input-output functions and selective tuning to ecologically relevant combinations of cues.

417 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
16 Aug 2019-Science
TL;DR: A GEVI is engineered, called Voltron, that uses bright and photostable synthetic dyes instead of protein-based fluorophores, thereby extending the number of neurons imaged simultaneously in vivo by a factor of 10 and enabling imaging for significantly longer durations relative to existing GEVIs.
Abstract: Genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) enable monitoring of neuronal activity at high spatial and temporal resolution. However, the utility of existing GEVIs has been limited by the brightness and photostability of fluorescent proteins and rhodopsins. We engineered a GEVI, called Voltron, that uses bright and photostable synthetic dyes instead of protein-based fluorophores, thereby extending the number of neurons imaged simultaneously in vivo by a factor of 10 and enabling imaging for significantly longer durations relative to existing GEVIs. We used Voltron for in vivo voltage imaging in mice, zebrafish, and fruit flies. In the mouse cortex, Voltron allowed single-trial recording of spikes and subthreshold voltage signals from dozens of neurons simultaneously over a 15-minute period of continuous imaging. In larval zebrafish, Voltron enabled the precise correlation of spike timing with behavior.

313 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A concerted effort is advocated for a concerted effort to fill this gap, through systematic, experimental mapping of neural circuits at a mesoscopic scale of resolution suitable for comprehensive, brainwide coverage, using injections of tracers or viral vectors.
Abstract: In this era of complete genomes, our knowledge of neuroanatomical circuitry remains surprisingly sparse. Such knowledge is critical, however, for both basic and clinical research into brain function. Here we advocate for a concerted effort to fill this gap, through systematic, experimental mapping of neural circuits at a mesoscopic scale of resolution suitable for comprehensive, brainwide coverage, using injections of tracers or viral vectors. We detail the scientific and medical rationale and briefly review existing knowledge and experimental techniques. We define a set of desiderata, including brainwide coverage; validated and extensible experimental techniques suitable for standardization and automation; centralized, open-access data repository; compatibility with existing resources; and tractability with current informatics technology. We discuss a hypothetical but tractable plan for mouse, additional efforts for the macaque, and technique development for human. We estimate that the mouse connectivity project could be completed within five years with a comparatively modest budget.

272 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jul 2016-eLife
TL;DR: It is shown that a surprisingly large fraction of cortical myelin ensheathes axons of inhibitory neurons, specifically of parvalbumin-positive basket cells, highlighting the need for exploring alternative roles for myelin in neocortical circuits.
Abstract: Myelin is best known for its role in increasing the conduction velocity and metabolic efficiency of long-range excitatory axons. Accordingly, the myelin observed in neocortical gray matter is thought to mostly ensheath excitatory axons connecting to subcortical regions and distant cortical areas. Using independent analyses of light and electron microscopy data from mouse neocortex, we show that a surprisingly large fraction of cortical myelin (half the myelin in layer 2/3 and a quarter in layer 4) ensheathes axons of inhibitory neurons, specifically of parvalbumin-positive basket cells. This myelin differs significantly from that of excitatory axons in distribution and protein composition. Myelin on inhibitory axons is unlikely to meaningfully hasten the arrival of spikes at their pre-synaptic terminals, due to the patchy distribution and short path-lengths observed. Our results thus highlight the need for exploring alternative roles for myelin in neocortical circuits.

218 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
26 Feb 2013-eLife
TL;DR: Using cell-type-specific projection mapping with synaptic resolution, this work observed the convergence of separate sensory and basilar pontine pathways onto individual granule cells and mapped this convergence across cerebellar cortex, providing evidence that the convergent basilar Pontine pathways carry corollary discharges from upper body motor cortical areas.
Abstract: Learning a new motor skill, from riding a bicycle to eating with chopsticks, involves the cerebellum—a structure located at the base of the brain underneath the cerebral hemispheres. Although its name translates as ‘little brain' in Latin, the cerebellum contains more neurons than all other regions of the mammalian brain combined. Most cerebellar neurons are granule cells which, although numerous, are simple neurons with an average of only four excitatory inputs, from axons called mossy fibers. These inputs are diverse in nature, originating from virtually every sensory system and from command centers at multiple levels of the motor hierarchy. However, it is unclear whether individual granule cells receive inputs from only a single sensory source or can instead mix modalities. This distinction has important implications for the functional capabilities of the cerebellum. Now, Huang et al. have addressed this question by mapping, at extremely high resolution, the projections of two pathways onto individual granule cells—one carrying sensory feedback from the upper body (the proprioceptive stream), and another carrying motor-related information (the pontine stream). Using a combination of genetic and viral techniques to label the pathways, Huang and co-workers identified regions where the two types of fiber terminated in close proximity. They then showed that around 40% of proprioceptive granule cells formed junctions, or synapses, with two (or more) fibers carrying different types of input. These cells were not uniformly distributed throughout the cerebellum but tended to occur in ‘hotspots’. Lastly, Huang et al. examined the type of information conveyed by the sensory and motor-related input streams whenever they contacted a single granule cell. They confirmed that when the sensory input consisted of feedback from the upper body, the motor input consisted of copies of motor commands related to the same body region. Because it is thought that the cerebellum converts sensory information into representations of the body's movements, directing motor commands to these same circuits may allow the cerebellum to predict the consequences of a planned movement prior to, or without, the actual movement occurring. The work of Huang et al. provides evidence to support the previously controversial idea that granule cells in the mammalian cerebellum receive both sensory and motor-related inputs. The labeling technique that they used could also be deployed to study the inputs to the cerebellum in greater detail, which should yield new insights into the functioning of this part of the brain.

212 citations


Cited by
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Christopher M. Bishop1
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.

10,141 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
22 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems are reviewed, including those related to the WWW.
Abstract: We will review some of the major results in random graphs and some of the more challenging open problems. We will cover algorithmic and structural questions. We will touch on newer models, including those related to the WWW.

7,116 citations

01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The modern applied statistics with s is universally compatible with any devices to read, and is available in the digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading modern applied statistics with s. As you may know, people have search hundreds times for their favorite readings like this modern applied statistics with s, but end up in harmful downloads. Rather than reading a good book with a cup of coffee in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful virus inside their laptop. modern applied statistics with s is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our digital library saves in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the modern applied statistics with s is universally compatible with any devices to read.

5,249 citations

01 Jan 2020
TL;DR: Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future.
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

4,408 citations