Brian C. Lovell
Other affiliations: Cooperative Research Centre, NICTA, Queensland University of Technology ...read more
Bio: Brian C. Lovell is an academic researcher from University of Queensland. The author has contributed to research in topics: Facial recognition system & Image segmentation. The author has an hindex of 48, co-authored 368 publications receiving 7823 citations. Previous affiliations of Brian C. Lovell include Cooperative Research Centre & NICTA.
Papers published on a yearly basis
••01 Dec 2013
TL;DR: This paper learns a projection of the data to a low-dimensional latent space where the distance between the empirical distributions of the source and target examples is minimized and demonstrates the effectiveness of the approach on the task of visual object recognition.
Abstract: Domain-invariant representations are key to addressing the domain shift problem where the training and test examples follow different distributions. Existing techniques that have attempted to match the distributions of the source and target domains typically compare these distributions in the original feature space. This space, however, may not be directly suitable for such a comparison, since some of the features may have been distorted by the domain shift, or may be domain specific. In this paper, we introduce a Domain Invariant Projection approach: An unsupervised domain adaptation method that overcomes this issue by extracting the information that is invariant across the source and target domains. More specifically, we learn a projection of the data to a low-dimensional latent space where the distance between the empirical distributions of the source and target examples is minimized. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach on the task of visual object recognition and show that it outperforms state-of-the-art methods on a standard domain adaptation benchmark dataset.
TL;DR: A survey and a comparative evaluation of recent techniques for moving cast shadow detection indicate that all shadow detection approaches make different contributions and all have individual strength and weaknesses.
Abstract: This paper presents a survey and a comparative evaluation of recent techniques for moving cast shadow detection. We identify shadow removal as a critical step for improving object detection and tracking. The survey covers methods published during the last decade, and places them in a feature-based taxonomy comprised of four categories: chromacity, physical, geometry and textures. A selection of prominent methods across the categories is compared in terms of quantitative performance measures (shadow detection and discrimination rates, colour desaturation) as well as qualitative observations. Furthermore, we propose the use of tracking performance as an unbiased approach for determining the practical usefulness of shadow detection methods. The evaluation indicates that all shadow detection approaches make different contributions and all have individual strength and weaknesses. Out of the selected methods, the geometry-based technique has strict assumptions and is not generalisable to various environments, but it is a straightforward choice when the objects of interest are easy to model and their shadows have different orientation. The chromacity based method is the fastest to implement and run, but it is sensitive to noise and less effective in low saturated scenes. The physical method improves upon the accuracy of the chromacity method by adapting to local shadow models, but fails when the spectral properties of the objects are similar to that of the background. The small-region texture based method is especially robust for pixels whose neighbourhood is textured, but may take longer to implement and is the most computationally expensive. The large-region texture based method produces the most accurate results, but has a significant computational load due to its multiple processing steps.
20 Jun 2011
TL;DR: An efficient patch-based face image quality assessment algorithm which quantifies the similarity of a face image to a probabilistic face model, representing an ‘ideal’ face is proposed.
Abstract: In video based face recognition, face images are typically captured over multiple frames in uncontrolled conditions, where head pose, illumination, shadowing, motion blur and focus change over the sequence. Additionally, inaccuracies in face localisation can also introduce scale and alignment variations. Using all face images, including images of poor quality, can actually degrade face recognition performance. While one solution it to use only the ‘best’ of images, current face selection techniques are incapable of simultaneously handling all of the abovementioned issues. We propose an efficient patch-based face image quality assessment algorithm which quantifies the similarity of a face image to a probabilistic face model, representing an ‘ideal’ face. Image characteristics that affect recognition are taken into account, including variations in geometric alignment (shift, rotation and scale), sharpness, head pose and cast shadows. Experiments on FERET and PIE datasets show that the proposed algorithm is able to identify images which are simultaneously the most frontal, aligned, sharp and well illuminated. Further experiments on a new video surveillance dataset (termed ChokePoint) show that the proposed method provides better face subsets than existing face selection techniques, leading to significant improvements in recognition accuracy.
••04 Jun 2009
TL;DR: A scalable face matching algorithm capable of dealing with faces subject to several concurrent and uncontrolled factors, such as variations in pose, expression, illumination, resolution, as well as scale and misalignment problems, is proposed.
Abstract: We propose a scalable face matching algorithm capable of dealing with faces subject to several concurrent and uncontrolled factors, such as variations in pose, expression, illumination, resolution, as well as scale and misalignment problems. Each face is described in terms of multi-region probabilistic histograms of visual words, followed by a normalised distance calculation between the histograms of two faces. We also propose a fast histogram approximation method which dramatically reduces the computational burden with minimal impact on discrimination performance. Experiments on the "Labeled Faces in the Wild" dataset (unconstrained environments) as well as FERET (controlled variations) show that the proposed algorithm obtains performance on par with a more complex method and displays a clear advantage over predecessor systems. Furthermore, the use of multiple regions (as opposed to a single overall region) improves accuracy in most cases, especially when dealing with illumination changes and very low resolution images. The experiments also show that normalised distances can noticeably improve robustness by partially counteracting the effects of image variations.
20 Jun 2011
TL;DR: It is shown that by introducing within-class and between-class similarity graphs to characterise intra-class compactness and inter-class separability, the geometrical structure of data can be exploited.
Abstract: A convenient way of dealing with image sets is to represent them as points on Grassmannian manifolds. While several recent studies explored the applicability of discriminant analysis on such manifolds, the conventional formalism of discriminant analysis suffers from not considering the local structure of the data. We propose a discriminant analysis approach on Grassmannian manifolds, based on a graph-embedding framework. We show that by introducing within-class and between-class similarity graphs to characterise intra-class compactness and inter-class separability, the geometrical structure of data can be exploited. Experiments on several image datasets (PIE, BANCA, MoBo, ETH-80) show that the proposed algorithm obtains considerable improvements in discrimination accuracy, in comparison to three recent methods: Grassmann Discriminant Analysis (GDA), Kernel GDA, and the kernel version of Affine Hull Image Set Distance. We further propose a Grassmannian kernel, based on canonical correlation between subspaces, which can increase discrimination accuracy when used in combination with previous Grassmannian kernels.
01 Jan 2006
TL;DR: Probability distributions of linear models for regression and classification are given in this article, along with a discussion of combining models and combining models in the context of machine learning and classification.
Abstract: Probability Distributions.- Linear Models for Regression.- Linear Models for Classification.- Neural Networks.- Kernel Methods.- Sparse Kernel Machines.- Graphical Models.- Mixture Models and EM.- Approximate Inference.- Sampling Methods.- Continuous Latent Variables.- Sequential Data.- Combining Models.
TL;DR: AUC exhibits a number of desirable properties when compared to overall accuracy: increased sensitivity in Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests; a standard error that decreased as both AUC and the number of test samples increased; decision threshold independent; and it is invariant to a priori class probabilities.
Abstract: In this paper we investigate the use of the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) as a performance measure for machine learning algorithms. As a case study we evaluate six machine learning algorithms (C4.5, Multiscale Classifier, Perceptron, Multi-layer Perceptron, k-Nearest Neighbours, and a Quadratic Discriminant Function) on six ''real world'' medical diagnostics data sets. We compare and discuss the use of AUC to the more conventional overall accuracy and find that AUC exhibits a number of desirable properties when compared to overall accuracy: increased sensitivity in Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests; a standard error that decreased as both AUC and the number of test samples increased; decision threshold independent; and it is invariant to a priori class probabilities. The paper concludes with the recommendation that AUC be used in preference to overall accuracy for ''single number'' evaluation of machine learning algorithms.
TL;DR: In this article, a new representation learning approach for domain adaptation is proposed, in which data at training and test time come from similar but different distributions, and features that cannot discriminate between the training (source) and test (target) domains are used to promote the emergence of features that are discriminative for the main learning task on the source domain.
Abstract: We introduce a new representation learning approach for domain adaptation, in which data at training and test time come from similar but different distributions. Our approach is directly inspired by the theory on domain adaptation suggesting that, for effective domain transfer to be achieved, predictions must be made based on features that cannot discriminate between the training (source) and test (target) domains. The approach implements this idea in the context of neural network architectures that are trained on labeled data from the source domain and unlabeled data from the target domain (no labeled target-domain data is necessary). As the training progresses, the approach promotes the emergence of features that are (i) discriminative for the main learning task on the source domain and (ii) indiscriminate with respect to the shift between the domains. We show that this adaptation behaviour can be achieved in almost any feed-forward model by augmenting it with few standard layers and a new gradient reversal layer. The resulting augmented architecture can be trained using standard backpropagation and stochastic gradient descent, and can thus be implemented with little effort using any of the deep learning packages. We demonstrate the success of our approach for two distinct classification problems (document sentiment analysis and image classification), where state-of-the-art domain adaptation performance on standard benchmarks is achieved. We also validate the approach for descriptor learning task in the context of person re-identification application.
••08 Jul 2016
TL;DR: It is found that a large fraction of adversarial examples are classified incorrectly even when perceived through the camera, which shows that even in physical world scenarios, machine learning systems are vulnerable to adversarialExamples.
Abstract: Most existing machine learning classifiers are highly vulnerable to adversarial examples. An adversarial example is a sample of input data which has been modified very slightly in a way that is intended to cause a machine learning classifier to misclassify it. In many cases, these modifications can be so subtle that a human observer does not even notice the modification at all, yet the classifier still makes a mistake. Adversarial examples pose security concerns because they could be used to perform an attack on machine learning systems, even if the adversary has no access to the underlying model. Up to now, all previous work have assumed a threat model in which the adversary can feed data directly into the machine learning classifier. This is not always the case for systems operating in the physical world, for example those which are using signals from cameras and other sensors as an input. This paper shows that even in such physical world scenarios, machine learning systems are vulnerable to adversarial examples. We demonstrate this by feeding adversarial images obtained from cell-phone camera to an ImageNet Inception classifier and measuring the classification accuracy of the system. We find that a large fraction of adversarial examples are classified incorrectly even when perceived through the camera.