Bio: Brigitte Bisaro is an academic researcher from University of Turin. The author has contributed to research in topics: Receptor tyrosine kinase & Integrin. The author has an hindex of 12, co-authored 16 publications receiving 571 citations.
TL;DR: Recent experimental and conceptual advances in integrin signaling are highlighted with particular emphasis on the ability of integrins to regulate Fak/Src family kinases (SFKs) activation and the cross-talk with soluble growth factors receptors and cytokines.
Abstract: Integrin signaling has a critical function in organizing cells in tissues during both embryonic development and tissue repair. Following their binding to the extracellular ligands, the intracellular signaling pathways triggered by integrins are directed to two major functions: organization of the actin cytoskeleton and regulation of cell behaviour including survival, differentiation and growth. Basic research conducted in the past twelve years has lead to remarkable breakthroughs in this field. Integrins are catalytically inactive and translate positional cues into biochemical signals by direct and/or functional association with intracellular adaptors, cytosolic tyrosine kinases or growth factor and cytokine receptors. The purpose of this chapter is to highlight recent experimental and conceptual advances in integrin signaling with particular emphasis on the ability of integrins to regulate Fak/Src family kinases (SFKs) activation and the cross-talk with soluble growth factors receptors and cytokines.
TL;DR: Findings provide evidences for a role of p130Cas as a positive regulator of both proliferation and survival in normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells.
Abstract: To investigate the mechanisms through which p130Cas adaptor protein is linked to tumorigenesis, we generated mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-p130Cas mice overexpressing p130Cas in the mammary gland. MMTVp130Cas transgenic mice are characterized by extensive mammary epithelial hyperplasia during development and pregnancy and by delayed involution at the end of lactation. These phenotypes are associated with activation of Src kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, mitogen-activated protein kinase, and Akt pathways, leading to an increased rate of proliferation and a decreased apoptosis. A double-transgenic line derived from crossing MMTV-p130Cas with MMTV-HER2-Neu mice expressing the activated form of the HER2-Neu oncogene develops multifocal mammary tumors with a significantly shorter latency than the HER2-Neu parental strain alone. Mammary epithelial cells isolated from tumors of double-transgenic mice display increased tyrosine phosphorylation, c-Src, and Akt activation compared with cells derived from HER2-Neu tumors. In addition, p130Cas down-regulation by RNA interference increases apoptosis in HER2-Neu-expressing cells, indicating that p130Cas regulates cell survival. Consistently with the double-transgenic mice model, p130Cas is overexpressed in a significant subset of human breast cancers and high levels of p130Cas in association with HER2 expression correlate with elevated proliferation. These findings provide evidences for a role of p130Cas as a positive regulator of both proliferation and survival in normal and transformed mammary epithelial cells. Its overexpression contributes to HER2-Neu-induced breast tumorigenesis, thus identifying this protein as a putative target for clinical therapy.
TL;DR: In conclusion, the higher HSP levels, observed in NB cells, did not confer increased resistance to doxorubicin; on the contrary, HSP inhibition by quercetin or gene silencing caused higher sensitization toDoxorubsicin.
Abstract: Neuroblastoma (NB) and Ewing's sarcoma (ES) represent the most common extracranial solid tumors of childhood. Heat shock proteins (HSP) are elevated in cancer cells and their over-expression was correlated to drug-resistance. In this work we identified the HSP by a sensitive proteomic analysis of NB and ES cell lines, then, we studied the HSP response to doxorubicin. Some identified HSP were constitutively more expressed in NB than in ES cells. Doxorubicin-stimulated HSP response only in NB cells. Quercetin was found to inhibit HSP expression depleting heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) cellular stores. Quercetin caused a higher anti-proliferative effect in NB (IC(50): 6.9 +/- 5.8 mumol/L) than in ES cells (IC(50): 85.5 +/- 53.1 mumol/L). Moreover, quercetin caused a very pronounced doxorubicin sensitizing effect in NB cells (241 fold IC(50) decrease) and a moderate effect in ES cells. HSP involvement in NB cells sensitization was confirmed by the silencing of HSF1. Quercetin treatment and HSF1 silencing increased the pro-apoptotic effect of doxorubicin. In conclusion, the higher HSP levels, observed in NB cells, did not confer increased resistance to doxorubicin; on the contrary, HSP inhibition by quercetin or gene silencing caused higher sensitization to doxorubicin. These results may have a potential application in the treatment of NB.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that p130Cas is an essential transducer element in ErbB2 transformation and highlighted its potential use as a novel therapeutic target in ErBB2 positive human breast cancers.
Abstract: The ErbB2 oncogene is often overexpressed in breast tumors and associated with poor clinical outcome. p130Cas represents a nodal scaffold protein regulating cell survival, migration, and proliferation in normal and pathological cells. The functional role of p130Cas in ErbB2-dependent breast tumorigenesis was assessed by its silencing in breast cancer cells derived from mouse mammary tumors overexpressing ErbB2 (N202-1A cells), and by its reexpression in ErbB2-transformed p130Cas-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts. We demonstrate that p130Cas is necessary for ErbB2-dependent foci formation, anchorage-independent growth, and in vivo growth of orthotopic N202-1A tumors. Moreover, intranipple injection of p130Cas-stabilized siRNAs in the mammary gland of Balbc-NeuT mice decreases the growth of spontaneous tumors. In ErbB2-transformed cells, p130Cas is a crucial component of a functional molecular complex consisting of ErbB2, c-Src, and Fak. In human mammary cells, MCF10A.B2, the concomitant activation of ErbB2,...
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that mesenchymalization is an intrinsic property of the most aggressive tumors and it relates to therapy resistance as well as bone metastasis and predicts resistance to neoadjuvant therapies.
Abstract: Background Mounting clinical and experimental evidence suggests that the shift of carcinomas towards a mesenchymal phenotype is a common paradigm for both resistance to therapy and tumor recurrence. However, the mesenchymalization of carcinomas has not yet entered clinical practice as a crucial diagnostic paradigm.
TL;DR: Reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence, and data show how collagenCrosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesion, growth factor signaling and breast malignancies.
Abstract: Tumors are characterized by extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening. The importance of ECM remodeling to cancer is appreciated; the relevance of stiffening is less clear. We found that breast tumorigenesis is accompanied by collagen crosslinking, ECM stiffening, and increased focal adhesions. Induction of collagen crosslinking stiffened the ECM, promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3 kinase (PI3K) activity, and induced the invasion of an oncogene-initiated epithelium. Inhibition of integrin signaling repressed the invasion of a premalignant epithelium into a stiffened, crosslinked ECM and forced integrin clustering promoted focal adhesions, enhanced PI3K signaling, and induced the invasion of a premalignant epithelium. Consistently, reduction of lysyl oxidase-mediated collagen crosslinking prevented MMTV-Neu-induced fibrosis, decreased focal adhesions and PI3K activity, impeded malignancy, and lowered tumor incidence. These data show how collagen crosslinking can modulate tissue fibrosis and stiffness to force focal adhesions, growth factor signaling and breast malignancy.
TL;DR: Recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions are discussed, and a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge are overviewed.
Abstract: The stem cell/material interface is a complex, dynamic microenvironment in which the cell and the material cooperatively dictate one another's fate: the cell by remodelling its surroundings, and the material through its inherent properties (such as adhesivity, stiffness, nanostructure or degradability). Stem cells in contact with materials are able to sense their properties, integrate cues via signal propagation and ultimately translate parallel signalling information into cell fate decisions. However, discovering the mechanisms by which stem cells respond to inherent material characteristics is challenging because of the highly complex, multicomponent signalling milieu present in the stem cell environment. In this Review, we discuss recent evidence that shows that inherent material properties may be engineered to dictate stem cell fate decisions, and overview a subset of the operative signal transduction mechanisms that have begun to emerge. Further developments in stem cell engineering and mechanotransduction are poised to have substantial implications for stem cell biology and regenerative medicine.
TL;DR: Findings indicate that human breast cancer progression and aggression, collagen linearization and stromal stiffening are linked and implicate tissue inflammation and TGF beta.
Abstract: Tumors are stiff and data suggest that the extracellular matrix stiffening that correlates with experimental mammary malignancy drives tumor invasion and metastasis. Nevertheless, the relationship between tissue and extracellular matrix stiffness and human breast cancer progression and aggression remains unclear. We undertook a biophysical and biochemical assessment of stromal–epithelial interactions in noninvasive, invasive and normal adjacent human breast tissue and in breast cancers of increasingly aggressive subtype. Our analysis revealed that human breast cancer transformation is accompanied by an incremental increase in collagen deposition and a progressive linearization and thickening of interstitial collagen. The linearization of collagen was visualized as an overall increase in tissue birefringence and was most striking at the invasive front of the tumor where the stiffness of the stroma and cellular mechanosignaling were the highest. Amongst breast cancer subtypes we found that the stroma at the invasive region of the more aggressive Basal-like and Her2 tumor subtypes was the most heterogeneous and the stiffest when compared to the less aggressive luminal A and B subtypes. Intriguingly, we quantified the greatest number of infiltrating macrophages and the highest level of TGF beta signaling within the cells at the invasive front. We also established that stroma stiffness and the level of cellular TGF beta signaling positively correlated with each other and with the number of infiltrating tumor-activated macrophages, which was highest in the more aggressive tumor subtypes. These findings indicate that human breast cancer progression and aggression, collagen linearization and stromal stiffening are linked and implicate tissue inflammation and TGF beta.
TL;DR: Multiple potential targets are present at the BTB for innovative contraceptive development and for better delivery of drugs to alleviate toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction in men, as well as critically evaluate findings in the field regarding studies on drug transporters in the testis.
Abstract: The blood-testis barrier (BTB) is one of the tightest blood-tissue barriers in the mammalian body. It divides the seminiferous epithelium into the basal and the apical (adluminal) compartments. Meiosis I and II, spermiogenesis, and spermiation all take place in a specialized microenvironment behind the BTB in the apical compartment, but spermatogonial renewal and differentiation and cell cycle progression up to the preleptotene spermatocyte stage take place outside of the BTB in the basal compartment of the epithelium. However, the BTB is not a static ultrastructure. Instead, it undergoes extensive restructuring during the seminiferous epithelial cycle of spermatogenesis at stage VIII to allow the transit of preleptotene spermatocytes at the BTB. Yet the immunological barrier conferred by the BTB cannot be compromised, even transiently, during the epithelial cycle to avoid the production of antibodies against meiotic and postmeiotic germ cells. Studies have demonstrated that some unlikely partners, namely adhesion protein complexes (e.g., occludin-ZO-1, N-cadherin-β-catenin, claudin-5-ZO-1), steroids (e.g., testosterone, estradiol-17β), nonreceptor protein kinases (e.g., focal adhesion kinase, c-Src, c-Yes), polarity proteins (e.g., PAR6, Cdc42, 14-3-3), endocytic vesicle proteins (e.g., clathrin, caveolin, dynamin 2), and actin regulatory proteins (e.g., Eps8, Arp2/3 complex), are working together, apparently under the overall influence of cytokines (e.g., transforming growth factor-β3, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1α). In short, a “new” BTB is created behind spermatocytes in transit while the “old” BTB above transiting cells undergoes timely degeneration, so that the immunological barrier can be maintained while spermatocytes are traversing the BTB. We also discuss recent findings regarding the molecular mechanisms by which environmental toxicants (e.g., cadmium, bisphenol A) induce testicular injury via their initial actions at the BTB to elicit subsequent damage to germ-cell adhesion, thereby leading to germ-cell loss, reduced sperm count, and male infertility or subfertility. Moreover, we also critically evaluate findings in the field regarding studies on drug transporters in the testis and discuss how these influx and efflux pumps regulate the entry of potential nonhormonal male contraceptives to the apical compartment to exert their effects. Collectively, these findings illustrate multiple potential targets are present at the BTB for innovative contraceptive development and for better delivery of drugs to alleviate toxicant-induced reproductive dysfunction in men.
01 Jan 2011