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Author

Bruce Dunn

Bio: Bruce Dunn is an academic researcher from University of California, Los Angeles. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Aerogel & Lithium. The author has an hindex of 88, co-authored 459 publication(s) receiving 54363 citation(s). Previous affiliations of Bruce Dunn include California NanoSystems Institute & Broad Institute.
Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2011-Science
TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

8,906 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Mar 2014-Science
TL;DR: Electrochemical measurements can distinguish between different types of energy storage materials and their underlying mechanisms, used to recover power in cars and electric mass transit vehicles that would otherwise lose braking energy as heat.
Abstract: Electrochemical measurements can distinguish between different types of energy storage materials and their underlying mechanisms.

3,494 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Electrochemical energy storage technology is based on devices capable of exhibiting high energy density (batteries) or high power density (electrochemical capacitors). There is a growing need, for current and near-future applications, where both high energy and high power densities are required in the same material. Pseudocapacitance, a faradaic process involving surface or near surface redox reactions, offers a means of achieving high energy density at high charge–discharge rates. Here, we focus on the pseudocapacitive properties of transition metal oxides. First, we introduce pseudocapacitance and describe its electrochemical features. Then, we review the most relevant pseudocapacitive materials in aqueous and non-aqueous electrolytes. The major challenges for pseudocapacitive materials along with a future outlook are detailed at the end.

2,911 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jun 2013-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This work quantifies the kinetics of charge storage in T-Nb2O5: currents that vary inversely with time, charge-storage capacity that is mostly independent of rate, and redox peaks that exhibit small voltage offsets even at high rates.
Abstract: Pseudocapacitance is commonly associated with surface or near-surface reversible redox reactions, as observed with RuO2·xH2O in an acidic electrolyte. However, we recently demonstrated that a pseudocapacitive mechanism occurs when lithium ions are inserted into mesoporous and nanocrystal films of orthorhombic Nb2O5 (T-Nb2O5; refs 1, 2). Here, we quantify the kinetics of charge storage in T-Nb2O5: currents that vary inversely with time, charge-storage capacity that is mostly independent of rate, and redox peaks that exhibit small voltage offsets even at high rates. We also define the structural characteristics necessary for this process, termed intercalation pseudocapacitance, which are a crystalline network that offers two-dimensional transport pathways and little structural change on intercalation. The principal benefit realized from intercalation pseudocapacitance is that high levels of charge storage are achieved within short periods of time because there are no limitations from solid-state diffusion. Thick electrodes (up to 40 μm thick) prepared with T-Nb2O5 offer the promise of exploiting intercalation pseudocapacitance to obtain high-rate charge-storage devices.

2,746 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The advantages in using nanostructured materials for electrochemical energy storage have largely focused on the benefits associated with short path lengths. In this paper, we consider another contribution, that of the capacitive effects, which become increasingly important at nanoscale dimensions. Nanocrystalline TiO2 (anatase) was studied over a dimensional regime where both capacitive and lithium intercalation processes contribute to the total stored charge. An analysis of the voltammetric sweep data was used to distinguish between the amount of charge stored by these two processes. At particle sizes below 10 nm, capacitive contributions became increasingly important, leading to greater amounts of total stored charge (gravimetrically normalized) with decreasing TiO2 particle size. The area normalized capacitance was determined to be well above 100 μF/cm2, confirming that the capacitive contribution was pseudocapacitive in nature. Moreover, reducing the particle size to the nanoscale regime led to faster...

2,625 citations


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Journal ArticleDOI
15 Nov 2001-Nature
TL;DR: A brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries is presented, ongoing research strategies are highlighted, and the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems are discussed.
Abstract: Technological improvements in rechargeable solid-state batteries are being driven by an ever-increasing demand for portable electronic devices. Lithium-ion batteries are the systems of choice, offering high energy density, flexible and lightweight design, and longer lifespan than comparable battery technologies. We present a brief historical review of the development of lithium-based rechargeable batteries, highlight ongoing research strategies, and discuss the challenges that remain regarding the synthesis, characterization, electrochemical performance and safety of these systems.

15,475 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
06 Feb 2008-Nature
TL;DR: Researchers must find a sustainable way of providing the power their modern lifestyles demand to ensure the continued existence of clean energy sources.
Abstract: Researchers must find a sustainable way of providing the power our modern lifestyles demand.

13,749 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Nov 2008-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This work has shown that combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries.
Abstract: Electrochemical capacitors, also called supercapacitors, store energy using either ion adsorption (electrochemical double layer capacitors) or fast surface redox reactions (pseudo-capacitors). They can complement or replace batteries in electrical energy storage and harvesting applications, when high power delivery or uptake is needed. A notable improvement in performance has been achieved through recent advances in understanding charge storage mechanisms and the development of advanced nanostructured materials. The discovery that ion desolvation occurs in pores smaller than the solvated ions has led to higher capacitance for electrochemical double layer capacitors using carbon electrodes with subnanometre pores, and opened the door to designing high-energy density devices using a variety of electrolytes. Combination of pseudo-capacitive nanomaterials, including oxides, nitrides and polymers, with the latest generation of nanostructured lithium electrodes has brought the energy density of electrochemical capacitors closer to that of batteries. The use of carbon nanotubes has further advanced micro-electrochemical capacitors, enabling flexible and adaptable devices to be made. Mathematical modelling and simulation will be the key to success in designing tomorrow's high-energy and high-power devices.

12,902 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
18 Nov 2011-Science
TL;DR: The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

8,906 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 2005-Nature Materials
TL;DR: This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoeLECTrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors and the advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices.
Abstract: New materials hold the key to fundamental advances in energy conversion and storage, both of which are vital in order to meet the challenge of global warming and the finite nature of fossil fuels. Nanomaterials in particular offer unique properties or combinations of properties as electrodes and electrolytes in a range of energy devices. This review describes some recent developments in the discovery of nanoelectrolytes and nanoelectrodes for lithium batteries, fuel cells and supercapacitors. The advantages and disadvantages of the nanoscale in materials design for such devices are highlighted.

7,703 citations


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Performance
Metrics

Author's H-index: 88

No. of papers from the Author in previous years
YearPapers
20222
202116
202025
201912
201819
201718

Top Attributes

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Author's top 5 most impactful journals

MRS Proceedings

30 papers, 135 citations

Solid State Ionics

24 papers, 526 citations

Chemistry of Materials

21 papers, 1.6K citations

ChemInform

19 papers, 197 citations