Bio: Bryan Maycock is an academic researcher from NSCAD University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Visual perception & Peripheral vision. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 5 publications receiving 8 citations.
TL;DR: In this article, the first few minutes of the drawing process of a novice is examined, where should I begin? The goal of the study was to understand how an artist looks when drawing from observation and apply expertise in eye movement and scientific methodology to a specific real-world question.
Abstract: For over a century, drawing from observation, at least at the introductory level, has been integral to many secondary and most post-secondary art school programs in Europe and North America. Its place in such programs is understood to develop an ability to see and interpret on a flat surface the real, three-dimensional world; this skill, in turn, provides support to related mental processes such as memory, visualization, and imagination. Where an artist looks when drawing from observation may not be arbitrary and can be observed, quantified, and analyzed. Our interest in examining the first few minutes of the drawing process takes its lead from the novice’s question, "Where should I begin?" Attempting to understand these first few minutes led to a collaborative study between art educators and cognitive-perceptual psychologists: the former interested in implications for practical pedagogy, the latter in applying expertise in eye movement and scientific methodology in service of a specific real-world question. The stated purpose of the study notwithstanding, contrasting histories and practices in art and science provided contexts for discussion beyond the collection and interpretation of data. This article seeks to report upon and further that discussion.
TL;DR: An eye monitor with high spatial and temporal precision was used to provide direct evidence for conventional ideas about the processing predilections of central and peripheral vision by controlling whether carefully designed hierarchical scenes were viewed only with central vision, only with peripheral vision, or with full vision.
Abstract: Conventional wisdom tells us that the appreciation of local (detail) and global (form and spatial relations) information from a scene is preferentially processed by central and peripheral vision, respectively. Using an eye monitor with high spatial and temporal precision, we sought to provide direct evidence for this idea by controlling whether carefully designed hierarchical scenes were viewed only with central vision (the periphery was masked), only with peripheral vision (the central region was masked), or with full vision. The scenes consisted of a neutral form (a D shape) composed of target circles or squares, or a target circle or square composed of neutral material (Ds). The task was for the participant to determine as quickly as possible whether the scene contained circle(s) or square(s). Increasing the size of the masked region had deleterious effects on performance. This deleterious effect was greater for the extraction of form information when the periphery was masked, and greater for the extraction of material information when central vision was masked, thus providing direct evidence for conventional ideas about the processing predilections of central and peripheral vision.
TL;DR: In this paper, a pilot study in the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design (NSCAD) Drawing Laboratory showed that the illumination of a scene influences how that scene is scanned and how it is depicted.
Abstract: The illumination of a scene influences how that scene is scanned and how it is depicted. This premise, together with assumptions regarding implications for teaching observational drawing, was the basis for a pilot study in the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design (NSCAD) Drawing Laboratory. The pilot provided evidence that helped refine the question and methods described in this expanded study. As in the pilot, participants worked from common stimuli that were lit in two distinct ways. The participants drew for a predetermined period of time while their hand movements were recorded digitally and the entire process was observed firsthand. Over a period of 7 days, five participants each completed four drawings. The 20 drawings were compared and the recordings analyzed. Digital analysis generated the most informative data in that, while light’s influence on drawing strategies proved to be less significant than anticipated, changes in drawing behavior were observed with implications for teaching and learning.
TL;DR: It is found that erasing occurs with greater frequency when participants work in a digital environment than in an analogue one and that, while there were significant tool use differences between the environments, those differences did not result in differences in the accuracy of final drawings indicating the adaptability of participants using different means to achieve the same effect.
Abstract: Erasing when drawing occurs for a variety of reasons. While the most obvious may be correction of mistakes, at other times erasers are used to create such things as highlights or marks that introduce particular aesthetic elements. When a drawing is made on paper, partial erasure ‘marks’ can provide a useful record of a drawing’s evolution. For the teacher, this historical record can be a catalyst for helpful commentary and criticism. While programmed to simulate an analogue eraser, in a digital environment the erase function can eradicate a drawing’s history with a single click. We studied analogue and digital tool use behaviours (including erasing) to compare the frequency of erasure and the effect of erasing on observational accuracy in adults between the age of 17 and 64 with various levels of drawing experience from less than two years to more than ten years. The study involved participants making one drawing on paper with traditional drawing tools and one drawing on a digital drawing tablet. We then had the drawings rated for accuracy. Among other interesting results, we found that erasing occurs with greater frequency when participants work in a digital environment than in an analogue one and that, while there were significant tool use differences between the environments, those differences did not result in differences in the accuracy of final drawings indicating the adaptability of our participants using different means to achieve the same effect.
11 Apr 2018
TL;DR: For instance, the authors discusses the multiplicity of the consciousness of self in the form of the stream of thought and the perception of space in the human brain, which is the basis for our work.
Abstract: Arguably the greatest single work in the history of psychology. James's analyses of habit, the nature of emotion, the phenomenology of attention, the stream of thought, the perception of space, and the multiplicity of the consciousness of self are still widely cited and incorporated into contemporary theoretical accounts of these phenomena.
01 Jan 2014
TL;DR: Il s’ensuit toutefois that les IMF n’ont guère de latitude pour fournir des services aux plus démunis c’est-à-dire ceux qui ont le plus besoin d’aide and qui devraient, en fait, recevoir cette aide en priorité.
Abstract: ion faite des questions d’efficacité et de ciblage, les clients pourraient ne pas comprendre qu’un même service lui donne accès gratuitement à un soutien social tout en insistant pour qu’il rembourse le prêt qu’il lui consent par ailleurs. Les décisions des clients, des groupes d’emprunteurs et des IMF sont généralement rationnelles. Il s’ensuit toutefois que les IMF n’ont guère de latitude pour fournir des services aux plus démunis c’est-à-dire ceux qui ont le plus besoin d’aide et qui devraient, en fait, recevoir cette aide en priorité. À de rares exceptions près, même les IMF qui ont pour mission d’atteindre les plus pauvres ne parviennent pas à réellement fournir des services à ceux qui se trouvent tout en bas de l’échelle (CGAP, 2006). 1.2. Les difficultés rencontrées du secteur de la microfinance en Egypte Le secteur de la microfinance égyptien est en pleine croissance et restructuration avec l’adoption de la nouvelle loi sur la microfinance en 2010. Le manque de régulation avant cette date posait un vrai problème notamment sur la responsabilité juridique. Si le client d’une IMF était floué, il pouvait difficilement réclamer son dû en justice. Ainsi, le texte de loi voté en 2010 a prévu d’accorder des permis temporaires aux entreprises de microfinance, qui devront les faire renouveler tous les deux ou trois ans. « Les nouvelles entreprises devront par exemple faire savoir comment leurs taux d’intérêt ont été calculés. Le coût de chaque prêt devra être approuvé
01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: In this article, the natural way to draw a working plan for art study is available in a book collection and an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly.
Abstract: the natural way to draw a working plan for art study is available in our book collection an online access to it is set as public so you can download it instantly. Our books collection spans in multiple locations, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the the natural way to draw a working plan for art study is universally compatible with any devices to read.
TL;DR: A growing number of studies have investigated visual processing of objects under more natural viewing conditions in which observers move their eyes to a stationary stimulus, visible previously in extra-foveal vision, during each trial.
Abstract: A key feature of visual processing in humans is the use of saccadic eye movements to look around the environment. Saccades are typically used to bring relevant information, which is glimpsed with extrafoveal vision, into the high-resolution fovea for further processing. With the exception of some unusual circumstances, such as the first fixation when walking into a room, our saccades are mainly guided based on this extrafoveal preview. In contrast, the majority of experimental studies in vision science have investigated "passive" behavioral and neural responses to suddenly appearing and often temporally or spatially unpredictable stimuli. As reviewed here, a growing number of studies have investigated visual processing of objects under more natural viewing conditions in which observers move their eyes to a stationary stimulus, visible previously in extrafoveal vision, during each trial. These studies demonstrate that the extrafoveal preview has a profound influence on visual processing of objects, both for behavior and neural activity. Starting from the preview effect in reading research we follow subsequent developments in vision research more generally and finally argue that taking such evidence seriously leads to a reconceptualization of the nature of human visual perception that incorporates the strong influence of prediction and action on sensory processing. We review theoretical perspectives on visual perception under naturalistic viewing conditions, including theories of active vision, active sensing, and sampling. Although the extrafoveal preview paradigm has already provided useful information about the timing of, and potential mechanisms for, the close interaction of the oculomotor and visual systems while reading and in natural scenes, the findings thus far also raise many new questions for future research.