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C.A.R. de Albuquerque

Bio: C.A.R. de Albuquerque is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 64 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that occurrences of BIF, GIF, Pherozoic ironstones, and exhalites surrounding VMS systems are linked to diverse environmental changes.
Abstract: Iron formations are economically important sedimentary rocks that are most common in Precambrian sedimentary successions. Although many aspects of their origin remain unresolved, it is widely accepted that secular changes in the style of their deposition are linked to environmental and geochemical evolution of Earth. Two types of Precambrian iron formations have been recognized with respect to their depositional setting. Algoma-type iron formations are interlayered with or stratigraphically linked to submarine-emplaced volcanic rocks in greenstone belts and, in some cases, with volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposits. In contrast, larger Superior-type iron formations are developed in passive-margin sedimentary rock successions and generally lack direct relationships with volcanic rocks. The early distinction made between these two iron-formation types, although mimimized by later studies, remains a valid first approximation. Texturally, iron formations were also divided into two groups. Banded iron formation (BIF) is dominant in Archean to earliest Paleoproterozoic successions, whereas granular iron formation (GIF) is much more common in Paleoproterozoic successions. Secular changes in the style of iron-formation deposition, identified more than 20 years ago, have been linked to diverse environmental changes. Geochronologic studies emphasize the episodic nature of the deposition of giant iron formations, as they are coeval with, and genetically linked to, time periods when large igneous provinces (LIPs) were emplaced. Superior-type iron formation first appeared at ca. 2.6 Ga, when construction of large continents changed the heat flux at the core-mantle boundary. From ca. 2.6 to ca. 2.4 Ga, global mafic magmatism culminated in the deposition of giant Superior-type BIF in South Africa, Australia, Brazil, Russia, and Ukraine. The younger BIFs in this age range were deposited during the early stage of a shift from reducing to oxidizing conditions in the ocean-atmosphere system. Counterintuitively, enhanced magmatism at 2.50 to 2.45 Ga may have triggered atmospheric oxidation. After the rise of atmospheric oxygen during the GOE at ca. 2.4 Ga, GIF became abundant in the rock record, compared to the predominance of BIF prior to the Great Oxidation Event (GOE). Iron formations generally disappeared at ca. 1.85 Ga, reappearing at the end of the Neoproterozoic, again tied to periods of intense magmatic activity and also, in this case, to global glaciations, the so-called Snowball Earth events. By the Phanerozoic, marine iron deposition was restricted to local areas of closed to semiclosed basins, where volcanic and hydrothermal activity was extensive (e.g., back-arc basins), with ironstones additionally being linked to periods of intense magmatic activity and ocean anoxia. Late Paleoproterozoic iron formations and Paleozoic ironstones were deposited at the redoxcline where biological and nonbiological oxidation occurred. In contrast, older iron formations were deposited in anoxic oceans, where ferrous iron oxidation by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria was likely an important process. Endogenic and exogenic factors contributed to produce the conditions necessary for deposition of iron formation. Mantle plume events that led to the formation of LIPs also enhanced spreading rates of midocean ridges and produced higher growth rates of oceanic plateaus, both processes thus having contributed to a higher hydrothermal flux to the ocean. Oceanic and atmospheric redox states determined the fate of this flux. When the hydrothermal flux overwhelmed the oceanic oxidation state, iron was transported and deposited distally from hydrothermal vents. Where the hydrothermal flux was insufficient to overwhelm the oceanic redox state, iron was deposited only proximally, generally as oxides or sulfides. Manganese, in contrast, was more mobile. We conclude that occurrences of BIF, GIF, Phanerozoic ironstones, and exhalites surrounding VMS systems record a complex interplay involving mantle heat, tectonics, and surface redox conditions throughout Earth history, in which mantle heat unidirectionally declined and the surface oxidation state mainly unidirectionally increased, accompanied by superimposed shorter term fluctuations.

758 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Borborema Province of Brazil has three major subprovinces: the central subprovince consists of a tectonic collage of various blocks, terranes, or domains ranging in age from Archean to Neoproterozoic as discussed by the authors.

166 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a compilation of 890 records of paleoshoreline sequences, with particular emphasis on the last interglacial stage (Marine Isotopic Stage [MIS] 5e, ~ 122 ka), and show that most coastal segments have risen relative to sea-level with a mean uplift rate higher than 0.2 mm/yr.

165 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Igarape Bahia mine in Brazil has been shown to be a member of the Olympic Dam-type Fe oxide Cu-Au-(U-REE) group of deposits, as previously argued by several authors.
Abstract: A striking feature of the Carajas region, Brazil, is the clustering of a variety of different types of Cu-Au deposits. The most abundant in the belt are the >200 million metric tons (Mt) of Fe oxide Cu-Au-(U-REE) deposits, which, despite the variety of host rocks and different orebody morphologies, share a number of diagnostic features, including (1) intense Fe metasomatism leading to the formation of grunerite, fayalite, and/or Fe oxides (magnetite and/or hematite); (2) intense carbonate alteration (mainly siderite); (3) sulfur-poor ore mineralogy (chalcopyrite and bornite); (4) quartz-deficient gangue; (5) extreme low REE enrichment, and (6) enrichment in U and Co. The Igarape Bahia deposit is perhaps the best documented Fe oxide Cu-Au-(U-REE) deposit of the belt, containing about 219 Mt at 1.4 percent Cu and 0.86 g/t Au. The Cu-Au ore consists of steeply dipping breccia bodies that are hosted by hydrothermally altered metavolcano-sedimentary rocks. SHRIMP II zircon dating of the host metavolcanic rocks gives a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2748 ± 34 Ma. This suggests a correlation between the Igarape Bahia volcano-sedimentary sequence and the Grao Para volcanic rocks, which have published ages of ca. 2.75 Ga. SHRIMP dating of monazite from the matrix of ore-bearing magnetite breccias gives a 207Pb/206Pb age of 2575 ± 12 Ma, confirming the epigenetic nature of the mineralization and placing it ~175 m.y. after accumulation of the host volcano-sedimentary sequence. The 2575 ± 12 Ma SHRIMP age of hydrothermal monazite from the Igarape Bahia mineralization is indistinguishable from published conventional 207Pb/206Pb ages for zircons from the Archean A-type granites of the Carajas belt, indicating that mineralization processes at Igarape Bahia were temporally related to these A-type Archean granites. The wide range of highly radiogenic 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.714–0.755) of carbonates from the Igarape Bahia deposit suggests multiple crustal sources, consistent with a magmatic-hydrothermal origin. SHRIMP dating of zircon xenocrysts recovered from crosscutting diabase dikes indicates a maximum 207Pb/206Pb age of ~2670 Ma, consistent with field evidence and the age of host rocks, but does not unequivocably constrain the age of the ores. The styles of hydrothermal alteration, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the Igarape Bahia ore, as well as published fluid inclusion and stable isotope data, support its classification as a member of the world-class Olympic Dam-type Fe oxide Cu-Au-(U-REE) group of deposits, as previously argued by several authors. The SHRIMP age of 2575 ± 12 Ma for hydrothermal monazite indicates that Igarape Bahia is an Archean example of this deposit group.

122 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: U-Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe data together with geochemical and Nd isotope analyses obtained in the basement complex of the Sierra de la Ventana Fold Belt indicate that the Early Palaeozoic passive margin history of the basin followed Cambrian magmatism related to rifting in a 600 Ma Neoproterozoic crust as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: U–Pb sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe data together with geochemical and Nd isotope analyses obtained in the basement complex of the Sierra de la Ventana Fold Belt indicate that the Early Palaeozoic passive margin history of the basin followed Cambrian magmatism related to rifting in a 600 Ma Neoproterozoic crust. The Cambrian episode started with intrusion of 531 ± 4 and 524 ± 5 Ma A- and I-type granites derived from a dehydrated infracrustal source ( e Nd 530 −3.1 to −5.9), and culminated with eruption of high-Zr peralkaline spherulitic rhyolites derived from an undepleted lithospheric mantle (509 ± 5 Ma; e Nd 509 +0.5 to +1.0). These rift-related magmatic rocks were covered by shelf sediments deposited along a once-continuous passive margin, encompassing the Sierra de la Ventana Fold Belt, the Cape Fold Belt, the Falkland/Malvinas microplate and the Ellsworth Mountains block in Antarctica. The Cambrian rifting event defined the outline shape of the southern part of Gondwana, and can be regarded as the initiation of the supercontinent stage, which lasted until Jurassic break-up. The conjugate continental fragments separated from Gondwana during the Cambrian rifting could be the source for microcontinents with c . 1000 Ma basement rocks that collided with the proto-Andean margin during Ordovician–Silurian times.

104 citations