C. G. Saravanan
Bio: C. G. Saravanan is an academic researcher. The author has contributed to research in topics: Diesel fuel & Diesel engine. The author has an hindex of 2, co-authored 2 publications receiving 11 citations.
TL;DR: At maximum brake power, the comparison of best emulsified fuel ratio with diesel fuel results show improvement in brake thermal efficiency with decrease in specific fuel consumption and smoke.
Abstract: The main objective of this study is to analyze the different ratio of emulsified fuels on the performance, emission and combustion characteristic s of four stroke single cylinder kirloskar TV-I direct injection compression ignition engine and co mpared with diesel fuel under different engine loads with constant engine speed of 1500 rpm. Four kinds of test fuels were prepared namely 80% diesel, 10% ethanol and 10% surfactant (Identified as D80E10); 70% diesel, 20% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D70 E20); 60% diesel 30% eth anol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D60 E30); 50% diesel, 40% ethanol and 10% surfactant (denoted as D50 E40) by volume respectively. In this test, Benzal konium chloride is added as an emulsif ier to the diesel-ethanol blend to prevent layer formation and to make it a homogeneous blend. At maximum brake power, the comparison of best emulsified fuel ratio with diesel fuel results show ed improvement in brake thermal efficiency with decrease in specific fuel consumption and smoke. Th e NO X, HC, CO 2, cylinder pressure and heat release rate for D50 E40 emulsions are higher when compared to diesel fuel.
01 Jan 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of different diesel-ethanol blended fuels on the engine performance, combustion and emissions, such as Brake specific fuel consumption, Brake thermal efficiency cylinder pressure, Heat release rate, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbon and smoke density.
Abstract: An experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the effect of different diesel-ethanol blended fuels on the engine performance, combustion and emissions, such as Brake specific fuel consumption, Brake thermal efficiency cylinder pressure, Heat release rate, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbon and smoke density. The experiments were conducted on a single cylinder four stroke water-cooled naturally aspirated open chamber (DI) Kirloskar TVI diesel engine fuelled with neat diesel and diesel-ethanol-Tween80 (Surfactant) blends at an injection pressure of 220 kgf/cm 2 with constant speed of 1500 rpm at varying load condition. The results indicate that the emulsified fuel decrease the specific fuel consumption and increase the brake thermal efficiency. This is due lower heating value of blended fuel. Among the blends the D50 E40 concentrations shows the highest oxides of nitrogen, Hydrocarbon and lowest smoke density were obtained at maximum brake power of the engine. The cylinder pressure and heat release rate are higher and recorded as 76 bar and 152 kJ/m 3 deg for D50 E40 blends than other blends and neat diesel fuel.
TL;DR: In this article, a review article targets the blending and emulsification techniques used in the oxygenation and fuel substitution of diesel engines and finds that secondary atomization resulting from the micro-explosion phenomenon of emulsified fuels and fuel oxygenation are responsible for the improvement of combustion, performance and CO and PM emissions.
Abstract: Global emission standards are getting more stringent in which the existing diesel engine technologies are on the brink of losing their permit to operate. While there are successful engine side researches that can target the current emission norms, their implementation in existing engines will not be possible due to their higher price tag. With this respect, fuel side improvement with no or minimal modification to engine hardware is the best way to address the issue in the existing engines. The commonly used fuel oxygenators in diesel engines are water, alcohol, biodiesel and the combinations of these. The method of oxygenation and their corresponding results on the combustion, performance and emissions that have been reported in the literatures are widely varied. The current review article targets the blending and emulsification techniques used in the oxygenation and fuel substitution of diesel. Based on the misconceptions about the stability of emulsions, many researchers are found to use the term blending even though the technique they have used is emulsification. While blending of fuels is convenient for fuels which have relatively similar boiling temperature, emulsification technique should be followed for fuel mixtures of varied boiling temperature so that the benefit of micro-explosion can be reflected in the fuel atomization. Secondary atomization resulting from the micro-explosion phenomenon of emulsified fuels and fuel oxygenation are responsible for the improvement of combustion, performance and CO and PM emissions. Latent heat of vaporization is found to be responsible for the reduction of NOx emissions.
TL;DR: In this paper , the current trends in application of biomass-based fuels as a valid option for heavy duty transport and discusses their technology readiness levels, cost and emphasizes on these fuels to be applied as drop-in fuels in heavy-duty engines to minimize potential green-house and toxic gas emissions.
Abstract: This paper analyses the current trends in application of biomass-based fuels as a valid option for heavy-duty transport and discusses their technology readiness levels, cost and emphasizes on these fuels to be applied as drop-in fuels in heavy-duty engines to minimize potential green-house and toxic gas emissions. Through the extended analysis, this study has identified that ethanol could be the best candidate for application in heavy-duty transport in terms of sustainability, cost, and emission reduction. Ethanol can be used in high concentrations as an additive or blended with the conventional diesel, which still remains a main type of fuel for heavy-duty transport. However, in order to completely adapt ethanol-diesel fuel blends to heavy-duty transport, a few challenges have to be resolved. The first challenge is the phase separation when high-concentration ethanol is blended with neat diesel. This can be fairly resolved by using certain types of surfactants, which will not negatively affect, but on the contrary, result in engine performance improvements as well as emission reductions. The second challenge is the ignition quality of the blends, as the cetane number of an ethanol-diesel blend decreases when high-concentration ethanol is blended with neat diesel. This can be resolved by using certain types of cetane improvers, as highlighted in this paper. The third challenge is the sustainable production and supply of ethanol without competing with food producers and minor impact on the indirect land use. This challenge can be resolved by producing ethanol from different types of organic waste, wastewater and biomass.
01 Jul 2021
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the engine performance and possible scope of improvement in direct injection engines powered by biofuel blends, mainly focused on three distinguished fuel properties: fuel feasibility, emissions, and engine performance.
Abstract: Bioethanol/biodiesel are deemed a highly suitable alternative to conventional fuels in the near future due to their versatility in production techniques and operability. This paper examines the engine performance and possible scope of improvement in direct injection engines powered by biofuel blends. The obtained outcomes from this review are mainly focused on three distinguished fuel properties: fuel feasibility, emissions, and engine performance. Critical analysis of these factors is followed by the highlighting of the possible scope of improvement. This review indicates that biofuels perform best with additives or as an additive when used with traditional petroleum fuels. Research analysis indicates that biodiesels show significant improvement in ignition delay due to higher oxygen content compared with traditional petroleum fuels and produce lower emission of pollutant gas. However, engines have shown a decrease in performance regarding power output, torque, and fuel efficiency. The suggested improvement to counter these issues include the addition of nanoparticles, exhaust gas recirculation, ethanol/methanol fumigation, and introduction of various methyl esters into the mixture.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors employed simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose through bacterial pathways to generate second-generation bioethanol utilizing corncob s and paper waste as lignocellulosic biomass.
Abstract: The demand for more environmentally friendly alternative renewable fuels is growing as fossil fuel resources are depleting significantly. Consequently, bioethanol has attracted interest as a potentially viable fuel. The key steps in second-generation bioethanol production include pretreatment, saccharification, and fermentation. The present study employed simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of cellulose through bacterial pathways to generate second-generation bioethanol utilizing corncob s and paper waste as lignocellulosic biomass. Mechanical and chemical pretreatments were applied to both biomasses. Then, two bacterial strains, Bacillus sp. and Norcadiopsis sp., hydrolysed the pretreated biomass and fermented it along with Achromobacter sp ., which was isolated and characterized from a previous study. Bioethanol production followed by 72 h of biomass hydrolysis employing Bacillus sp. and Norcadiopsis sp ., and then 72 h of fermentation using Achromobacter sp. Using solid phase micro extraction combined with GCMS the ethanol content was quantified. SSF of alkaline pretreated paper waste hydrolysed by Bacillus sp. following the fermentation by Achromobacte r sp. showed the maximum ethanol percentage of 0.734±0.154. Alkaline pretreated corncobs hydrolyzed by Norcadiopsis sp. yielded the lowest ethanol percentage of 0.155±0.154. The results of the study revealed that paper waste is the preferred feedstock for generating second-generation bioethanol. To study the possible use of ethanol-diesel blends as an alternative biofuel E2, E5, E7, and E10 blend emulsions were prepared mixing commercially available diesel with ethanol. The evaluated physico-chemical characteristics of the ethanol-diesel emulsions fulfilled the Ceypetco requirements except for the flashpoint revealing that the lower ethanol-diesel blends are a promising alternative to transport fuels. As a result, the current study suggests that second generation bioethanol could be used as a renewable energy source to help alleviate the energy crisis..
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: In this article, the preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated and an organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanoldiesel-trace amounts of water system.
Abstract: The preparation of ethanol-diesel fuel blends and their emission characteristics were investigated. Results showed the absolute ethanol can dissolve in diesel fuel at an arbitrary ratio and a small quantity of water(0.2%) addition can lead to the phase separation of blends. An organic additive was synthesized and it can develop the ability of resistance to water and maintain the stability of ethanol-diesel-trace amounts of water system. The emission characteristics of 10%, 20%, and 30% ethanol-diesel fuel blends, with or without additives, were compared with those of diesel fuel in a direct injection(DI) diesel engine. The experimental results indicated that the blend of ethanol with diesel fuel significantly reduced the concentrations of smoke, hydrocarbon(HC), and carbon monoxide(CO) in exhaust gas. Using 20% ethanol-diesel fuel blend with the additive of 2% of the total volume, the optimum mixing ratio was achieved, at which the bench diesel engine testing showed a significant decrease in exhaust gas. Bosch smoke number was reduced by 55%, HC emission by 70%, and CO emission by 45%, at 13 kW/1540 r/min. However, ethanol-diesel fuel blends produced a few ppm acetaldehydes and more ethanol in exhaust gas.