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C. Immanuel Selvaraj

Bio: C. Immanuel Selvaraj is an academic researcher from VIT University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Genetic diversity & Dendrogram. The author has an hindex of 3, co-authored 4 publications receiving 23 citations.

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions of Garciainia cambogia was supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions.
Abstract: In this work, the genetic relationship among twelveGarcinia cambogia (Gaertn.) Desr. accessions were evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA markers. The samples were part of the germplasm collected and maintained at NBPGR Regional station, Thrissur, India. Out of thirty RAPD primers used for screening, seven primers produced a total of 128 polymorphic markers in twelve accessions. The Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) ranged from 0.28 (OPA18) to 0.37 (OPA9) and Marker Index (MI) ranged between 3.61 (OPA12) and 5.93 (OPA3) among the primers used. Jaccard's coefficient of genetic similarity ranged between 0.07 and 0.64. The dendrogram constructed based on the similarity matrix generated from the molecular and morphological data showed the genetic relationship among the sampled accessions. Mantel matrix test showed a positive correlation (r = 0.49) between the cluster analysis of RAPD data and morphological data. The clustering pattern in the molecular dendrogram and Principle Coordinate Analysis (PCoA) showed that the genotypes were diverse, which was in congruence with the similarity index values and morphological dendrogram. High frequency of similarity values in the range of 0.11 to 0.17 suggested the existence of high genetic diversity among the accessions. The high level of genetic diversity among the studied accessions ofG.cambogia was also supported by the large variation in the morphological characters observed in the flowers, leaves, fruits and seeds of these sampled accessions. This is the first report for the molecular based genetic diversity studies for these accessions.

12 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.
Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro anthelmintic activity and antibacterial activity of the extracts from the leaves and fruits of Garcinia indica (Dupetit-Thouars) Choisy and Garcinia cambogia(Gaertn.) Desr. using the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Two concentrations (25 and 50 mg/mL) of various extracts such as petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water were tested. Albendazole at the concentrations of 25 and 50 mg/mL was used as the standard reference. Significant anthelmintic effects of the fruits and leaves of G. cambogia and G. indica (P<0.05) were observed and the results were expressed in terms of paralysis and death time. All the extracts showed the dose dependent paralysis and death of earthworms. Among all the extracts used, methanol extract exhibited the highest activity. G. cambogia leaf extract (50 mg/mL) had 30% faster paralysis effect on earthworms than the standard reference. Furthermore, the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extracts of the fruits and leaves showed significant (P<0.05) activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. At a concentration of 500 µg/mL, G. indica fruit extract presented higher zones of inhibition against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Hence, it could be concluded that the leaves and fruits of G. indica and G. cambogia contained active anthelmintic and antibacterial phytochemicals, which could find their applications in pharmaceuticals.

11 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: The phytochemical and cytogenetic analysis of A. calamus accessions revealed that both diploid and triploid have low concentration of β-asarone irrespective of their geographical location.
Abstract: Acorus calamus L. (Family: Acoraceae) is a well-known traditional, endangered, medicinal and aromatic plant mainly found in India and China. The plant is also widely used in industrial, pharmaceutical and food industries. In the present study, 20 different accessions of Indian A. calamus were subjected to the study of genetic diversity (RAPD), and cytogenetic and phytochemical (β-asarone) analysis. For RAPD analysis, 9 primers were chosen, which generated 107 DNA fragments. The average percentage of polymorphism was recorded to be 67.23%. The primer OPA 12 showed the highest (100%) polymorphism, whereas the lowest (38.2%) polymorphism was observed for the primer OPBB 6. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values ranged 0.44 (OPA 7) to 0.18 (OPA11), while marker index (MI) values ranged 4.74 (OPA 7) to 0.36 (OPA 11). A dendogram was constructed by UPGMA method and the robustness of the tree was confirmed by bootstrap analysis with 1000 pseudo samples. For cytogenetic analysis, the 20 A. calamus accessions were screened for their ploidy status. The accessions were found to be either diploid or triploids. The phytochemical analysis of β-asarone content was determined through by HPLC method. The β-asarone concentration varied in the range of 2.2 to 7.2 mg/100 mg. The results of present study indicated the presence of low level of polymorphism among the A. calamus accessions of South India and North-East India. The phytochemical and cytogenetic analysis revealed that both diploid and triploid have low concentration of β-asarone irrespective of their geographical location.

3 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Diploid Acorus calamus accessions are identified as they are reported to have less concentration of β-asarone from those of triploids, which is absent in diploids.
Abstract: Acorus calamus is a well-known medicinal and aromatic plant used for many industrial and pharmaceutical purposes. In our current study, twenty different accessions of Acorus calamus collected from North-East India and South India have been studied and an attempt has been made to classify them according to their ploidy level by cytogenetic analysis and to correlate them via PCR-RFLP technique for the NonTranscribed Spacer (NTS) region of the 5S-rRNA gene. β-asarone which is the major phyto-chemical found in Acorus sp. when present in higher concentrations was found to be carcinogenic. The scope of this study is to identify diploid Acorus calamus accessions as they are reported to have less concentration of β-asarone from those of triploids. Cytoyping was performed by staining of root metaphase chromosomes. For PCR-RFLP analysis, the NTS region of 5S rRNA gene was amplified by using primers, designed from the coding regions of 5S rRNA gene. The PCR products were digested with EcoRI restriction enzyme. Triploid accessions showed restriction digestion at 586 bp resulting in an additional fragment of 127 bp, which is absent in diploids. Ten diploid accessions and 10 triploid accessions were identified by cytogenetic technique and PCR-RFLP method. The sequences of triploid and diploid were analyzed using bioinformatics tools.

1 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The antimicrobial activity was enhanced in the presence of TiO2 NPs modified with G. zeylanica and with longer contact time.
Abstract: The antibacterial activity of 21 nm TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) and particles modified with Garcinia zeylanica (G. zeylanica) against Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus was investigated in the presence and absence of light. Surface modification of TiO2 NPs with the adsorption of G. zeylanica extract, causes to shift the absorption edge of TiO2 NPs to higher wavelength. TiO2 NPs, G. zeylanica pericarp extract showed significant bactericidal activity which was further enhanced in contact with the TiO2 modified G. zeylanica extract. The antimicrobial activity was enhanced in the presence of TiO2 NPs modified with G. zeylanica and with longer contact time.

61 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the mechanism of the tandem Claisen-Rearrangement-Diels-Alder-Cycloaddition reactions of the caged garcinia xanthone derivatives at the B3LYP/6-31G+(d) level of theory.

14 citations

Dissertation
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: In vitro screening of 15 selected plant species identified to have anthelmintic traits for their individual activity at three concentrations on mixed L3 larvae of goats and sheep grazing contaminated Kikuyu grass resulted in efficacies of 71.2±2.62%, 88.0±1.88% and 97.9±0.91% for goats, and 93.8± 2.91 % for sheep.
Abstract: This study was focused on in vitro screening of 15 selected plant species identified to have anthelmintic traits for their individual activity at three concentrations on mixed L3 larvae of goats and sheep grazing contaminated Kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum). It comprised of three sub-studies, based on major bioactive anthelmintic principles from extensive body of research. Sub-study (1) was based on alkaloids and tannins plant species, including Crinum macowanii, Gunnera perpensa, Nicotiana tabacum, Sarcostema viminale, Vernonia amygdalina, Zingiber officinale and Zizyphus mucronata. Sub-study (2) was based on flavonoid plant species and consisted of Trema orientalis, Urtica dioica and Zanthozylum capense. Ultimately, sub-study (3) was based on proteases and nitrogen compounds containing plant species including Allium cepa, Ananas comosus, Bidens pilosa, Carica papaya, and Ricinus communis. Oven-dried leaf samples (40g; 20g; 10g) of each species were extracted in 70% ethanol, and concentrated to 100ml; constituting 4×, 2× and 1× crude extract concentration. Rectal faecal material from 10 Merino sheep and 25 Nguni goats, pooled within species and hand-mixed. Dung samples (5g) were weighed and cultured for 12 days at 27°C. On day 13, four plates were watered, and others (4) treated with 70% ethanol to correct for solvent effect on mortality. Sub-study (1), had 2 (animal species) x 7 (plant species) x 3 (extract concentrations) factorial design. Sub-study (2), 2 (animal species) x 3 (plant species) x 3 (extract concentration) factorial design. Sub-study (3) had 2 (animal species) x 5 (plant species) x 3 (concentrations) factorial design. In each run, three plates were treated with each crude extract concentration. L3 larvae isolated on day 14, larval counts done, and mortality adopted as indices of percentage dose anthelmintic efficacy. The study was re-run three times. In substudy (1), animal species (P= 0.0107) and concentration (P= 0.0005) affected efficacy. Increases in crude extract concentration from 1x to 2x and 4x resulted to efficacies of 71.2±2.62%, 88.0±1.88% and 97.9±0.91% for goats, and 93.8±2.62%, 96.0±1.88 % and 98.0±0.91 % for sheep. Interaction between extract concentration and animal species affected efficacy (P= 0.0127). In sub-study (2), concentration affected (P< 0.0001) efficacy. Animal

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The genetic relationships among twenty-five accessions of Garcinia kola using six Random Amplified Polymorphic (RAPD) primers were evaluated and clearly showed the level of molecular diversity in the accessions and the information provided could be utilized for genetic improvement and conservation of Garcia kola.
Abstract: The genetic relationships among twenty-five accessions of Garcinia kola using six Random Amplified Polymorphic (RAPD) primers were evaluated in this study. The highest volume of total genomic DNA (2218/μl) was recorded in ON4 from Ikare, while the highest DNA concentration of 1.93 gl was found in OS3 from Ilesa. The highest Polymorphic Information Content (PIC) and gene diversity of 93.77% and 0.94 respectively were revealed by primer OPO2 compared to other primers. The dendogram generated from Unweighted Pair Group with Mean Average (UPGMA) clustering delineated two groups, A and B, consisting of 21 and 4 accessions respectively. This study clearly showed the level of molecular diversity in the accessions and the information provided could be utilized for genetic improvement and conservation of Garcinia kola.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is confirmed that diploids differ from triploids in the size of air lacunae in leaves, which is determined by cell number rather than cell size in septa of aerenchyma.

6 citations