Author

# C. L. Sheng

Other affiliations: National Taiwan University, University of Ottawa, University of Windsor

Bio: C. L. Sheng is an academic researcher from Tamkang University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Utilitarianism & Boolean expression. The author has an hindex of 9, co-authored 34 publications receiving 857 citations. Previous affiliations of C. L. Sheng include National Taiwan University & University of Ottawa.

##### Papers

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TL;DR: In this article, the essence of utilitarianism finally reduces to the maximization of aggregate or social utility, which, as I interpret it, is a function of values, and therefore value theory is not only related to moral philosophy but also becomes the basis of moral judgments.

Abstract: Although ethics and axiology are closely related to each other and sometimes overlap, they are normally still considered two separate subareas of philosophy. However, in utilitarianism, since the principle of utility asserts that the ultimate criterion for morality is maximal utility, the essence of utilitarianism finally reduces to the maximization of aggregate or social utility, which, as I interpret it, is a function of values. Furthermore, in the unified utilitarian theory, “good” is used to describe what has a positive value. Therefore value theory is not only related to moral philosophy, but also becomes the basis of moral judgments.

660 citations

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TL;DR: A standard method for testing and realizing a threshold function is to solve a set of linear inequalities in which the unknowns are the n weights to be assigned to the n variables, but this method results in a simpler set of inequalities which furnishes direct information on 1-realizability of the function and on the assignment of weights for realization, often without the necessity for trial and adjustment.

Abstract: A standard method for testing and realizing a threshold function is to solve a set of linear inequalities in which the unknowns are the n weights to be assigned to the n variables. In this paper a simple method of solving this set of inequalities is presented. Instead of using the weights themselves as the unknowns, a set of n new unknowns, the incremental weights ?a 1 , ?a 2 , . . ., ?a n?1 , together with the lowest weight a n , is used. This change of unknowns results in a simpler set of inequalities which, in turn, furnishes direct information on 1-realizability1 of the function and on the assignment of weights for realization, often without the necessity for trial and adjustment.

23 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the logarithm function is proposed to be a general utility function for decision making under risk or uncertainty with known probability distribution, which is mathematically and philosophically justified.

21 citations

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TL;DR: A graphical interpretation of the realization of symmetric Boolean functions with threshold logic elements is presented, from which a systematic synthesis method is developed, and some theorems related to graphical interpretation and realization are presented.

Abstract: A graphical interpretation of the realization of symmetric Boolean functions with threshold logic elements is presented, from which a systematic synthesis method is developed. Theoretically, symmetric functions of any number of variables can be realized. Examples are given to show that, practically, there is no difficulty at all in realizing symmetric Boolean functions of as many as thirty or forty variables. Some theorems related to graphical interpretation and realization are presented, and the lower and upper bounds of the number of threshold logic elements required for the realization of symmetric functions are also derived from the graphical point of view.

18 citations

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TL;DR: This paper deals with the problem of compound synthesis of threshold-logic network, or of realizing a general Boolean function with a number of threshold -logic elements, and presents a simplified synthesis procedure, which needs less cut and trial than the original procedure and is, therefore, more practical.

Abstract: This paper deals with the problem of compound synthesis of threshold-logic network, or of realizing a general Boolean function with a number of threshold-logic elements. Some basic theorems concerning the expression of a general Boolean function as a combination of a number of threshold functions are presented. The general structure of a network of m threshold-logic elements is analyzed in light of the basic theorems and properties of threshold functions. The properties of isobaric threshold functions are discussed and are utilized for compound synthesis. Methods for decomposing a function into a sum or product of unate functions and into a sum or product of threshold functions are developed. A synthesis procedure conforming with the general structure of a network of threshold-logic elements is given. A simplified synthesis procedure, which needs less cut and trial than the original procedure and is, therefore, more practical, is also presented. Some special situations are discussed. Examples are worked out to show the decomposition of functions, and to illustrate the synthesis method.

15 citations

##### Cited by

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TL;DR: The authors argued that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive first-order relationship between financial development and economic growth, and that financial development level is a good predictor of future rates of economic growth.

Abstract: The author argues that the preponderance of theoretical reasoning and empirical evidence suggests a positive first order relationship between financial development and economic growth. There is evidence that the financial development level is a good predictor of future rates of economic growth, capital accumulation, and technological change. Moreover, cross-country, case-style, industry level and firm-level analysis document extensive periods when financial development crucially affects the speed and pattern of economic development. The author explains what the financial system does and how it affects, and is affected by, economic growth. Theory suggests that financial instruments, markets and institutions arise to mitigate the effects of information and transaction costs. A growing literature shows that differences in how well financial systems reduce information and transaction costs influence savings rates, investment decisions, technological innovation, and long-run growth rates. A less developed theoretical literature shows how changes in economic activity can influence financial systems. The author advocates a functional approach to understanding the role of financial systems in economic growth. This approach focuses on the ties between growth and the quality of the functions provided by the financial systems. The author discourages a narrow focus on one financial instrument, or a particular institution. Instead, the author addresses the more comprehensive question: What is the relationship between financial structure and the functioning of the financial system?

5,967 citations

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TL;DR: The authors used a framework for culinary product innovations as a distinctive capability specifically to foodservice operations, and used a rice flour beignet project as a case study of the proposed process.

Abstract: This study utilizes a framework for culinary product innovations as a distinctive capability specifically to foodservice operations. Following a more thorough discussion of the innovation process in Part I, results are provided using a rice flour beignet project as a case study of the proposed process. The rice flour beignet study uses a culinary identity perspective and provides an example of the linking process between firm objectives and the external environment. Using this framework, rice flour beignets were formulated that provide 45% lower oil absorption, 32% fewer calories and are preferred over the traditional wheat flour beignet by consumers and a trained sensory panel.

1,405 citations

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TL;DR: Arnabels invitation is inspired in part by Hilbert's list of 1900 (see e.g. [Browder, 1976]) and I have used that list to help design this essay.

Abstract: V. I. Arnold, on behalf of the International Mathematical Union has written to a number of mathematicians with a suggestion that they describe some great problems for the next century. This report is my response. Arnold's invitation is inspired in part by Hilbert's list of 1900 (see e.g. [Browder, 1976]) and I have used that list to help design this essay. I have listed 18 problems, chosen with these criteria:

1,310 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a knowledge-based theory of the firm is developed that focuses on the efficiency of alternative organizational forms ingenerating knowledge or capability and is among the first to simultaneously treat both the boundary choice and the choice among alternative internal approaches to organizing.

Abstract: In this paper we develop a knowledge-based theory of the firm. While existing knowledge-based theory focuses on the efficiency of hierarchy in economizing on knowledge exchange, we develop a theory of the firm that focuses on the efficiency of alternative organizational forms ingenerating knowledge or capability. Our theory begins with the problem as the basic unit of analysis, arguing that a problem's complexity influences the optimal method of solution search and the optimal means of organizing that search. The distinguishing feature that differentiates among organizational alternatives is the different way each resolves conflict over the selection of solution trials, that is, the way it chooses the path of search. Our theory predicts that efficiency demands that these governance alternatives be matched in a discriminating way to problems based on their associated benefits and costs in governing solution search. Thus, our theory is among the first to simultaneously treat both the boundary choice (i.e., internal versus external) and the choice among alternative internal approaches to organizing.

1,221 citations

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TL;DR: In economics, it is now recognized that information is imperfect, obtaining information can be costly, there are important asymmetries of information, and the extent of information asymmetry is affected by actions of e rms and individuals.

Abstract: In the e eld of economics, perhaps the most important break with the past— one that leaves open huge areas for future work— lies in the economics of information. It is now recognized that information is imperfect, obtaining information can be costly, there are important asymmetries of information, and the extent of information asymmetries is affected by actions of e rms and individuals. This recognition deeply affects the understanding of wisdom inherited from the past, such as the fundamental welfare theorem and some of the basic characterization of a market economy, and provides explanations of economic and social phenomena that otherwise would be hard to understand. I. INTRODUCTION The century coming to a close has seen vast changes in economics in both ideas and methodology. Upon ree ection, it is remarkable, however, how many of the seeds of advances in this century were sowed in the previous. I would argue that perhaps the most important break with the past— one that leaves open huge areas for future work— lies in the economics of information. The recognition that information is imperfect, that obtaining information can be costly, that there are important asymmetries of information, and that the extent of information asymmetries is affected by actions of e rms and individuals, has had profound implications for the wisdom inherited from the past, and has provided explanations of economic and social phenomena that otherwise would be hard to understand. In this essay I wish to argue that information economics has had— directly and indirectly— a profound effect on how we think about economics today. Eighteenth and Nineteenth-Century Antecedents To be sure, Marshall and other nineteenth century economists talked about problems of imperfect information. But with one exception, discussions of information were obiter dicta, caveats at the end of the analysis; they were never at the center.

1,134 citations