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Author

C. Sudandiradoss

Bio: C. Sudandiradoss is an academic researcher from VIT University. The author has contributed to research in topic(s): Docking (molecular) & Single-nucleotide polymorphism. The author has an hindex of 13, co-authored 39 publication(s) receiving 559 citation(s).

Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Oct 2007-Genomics
TL;DR: It is proposed that an nsSNP (rs1800751) could be an important candidate for the breast cancer caused by the BRCA1 gene from a comparison of the stabilizing residues of the native and mutant proteins.
Abstract: Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) play a major role in the understanding of the genetic basis of many complex human diseases. Also, the genetics of human phenotype variation could be understood by knowing the functions of these SNPs. It is still a major challenge to identify the functional SNPs in a disease-related gene. In this work, we have analyzed the genetic variation that can alter the expression and the function of the BRCA1 gene using computational methods. Of the total 477 SNPs, 65 were found to be nonsynonymous (ns) SNPs. Among the 14 SNPs in the untranslated region, 4 were found in the 5′ and 10 were found in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR). It was found that 16.9% of the nsSNPs were damaging, by both the SIFT and the PolyPhen servers. The UTR Resource tool suggested that 2 of 4 SNPs in the 5′ UTR and 3 of 10 SNPs in the 3′ UTR might change the protein expression levels. We identified major mutations from proline to serine at positions 1776 and 1812 of the native protein of the BRCA1 gene. From a comparison of the stabilizing residues of the native and mutant proteins, we propose that an nsSNP (rs1800751) could be an important candidate for the breast cancer caused by the BRCA1 gene.

71 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings demonstrate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of ferulic acid on MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats and show significant ligand efficiency towards pro-caspase-1, NF-κB, PYCARD/ASC, and NLRP3.
Abstract: Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of ferulic acid, a dietary phenol, on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. For the purpose of comparison, colchicine was used as a reference drug. Main methods Paw edema, levels/activities of elastase, lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase and β-galactosidase), nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant status and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β), and histology of ankle joints were evaluated in rats with MSU crystal-induced inflammation. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), NLRP3 (nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasomes, caspase-1, and the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B p65 (NF-κB p65) was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The protein expression of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α was detected by immunohistochemical analysis. Further, a molecular docking analysis was conducted to determine the ligand efficiency of ferulic acid towards NF-κB, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (PYCARD/ASC), NLRP3, and pro-caspase-1. Key findings In the joint homogenate of rats with MSU crystal-induced inflammation, treatment with ferulic acid (30 mg/kg body weight (b.wt)) decreased paw edema; the level/activity of elastase, lysosomal enzymes, nitric oxide, lipid peroxidation, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β); and the mRNA expression of NLRP3 inflammasomes, caspas e -1, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and NF-κB p65. In addition, the protein expression of NF-κB p65 and TNF-α was also found to be significantly decreased. However, the antioxidant status (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)) were found to be increased. The molecular docking analysis showed that ferulic acid exhibited significant ligand efficiency towards pro-caspase-1, NF-κB, PYCARD/ASC, and NLRP3. Significance Our findings demonstrate the potential anti-inflammatory effect of ferulic acid on MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats.

53 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the CFTR gene responsible for causing cystic fibrosis are analyzed using computational methods to identify potential candidates for future studies on CFTR mutations.
Abstract: Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) are being intensively studied to understand the biological basis of complex traits and diseases. The Genetics of human phenotype variation could be understood by knowing the functions of SNPs. In this study using computational methods, we analyzed the genetic variations that can alter the expression and function of the CFTR gene responsible candidate for causing cystic fibrosis. We applied an evolutionary perspective to screen the SNPs using a sequence homology-based SIFT tool, which suggested that 17 nsSNPs (44%) were found to be deleterious. The structure-based approach PolyPhen server suggested that 26 nsSNPS (66%) may disrupt protein function and structure. The PupaSuite tool predicted the phenotypic effect of SNPs on the structure and function of the affected protein. Structure analysis was carried out with the major mutation that occurred in the native protein coded by CFTR gene, and which is at amino acid position F508C for nsSNP with id (rs1800093). The amino acid residues in the native and mutant modeled protein were further analyzed for solvent accessibility, secondary structure and stabilizing residues to check the stability of the proteins. The SNPs were further subjected to iHAP analysis to identify htSNPs, and we report potential candidates for future studies on CFTR mutations.

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work analyzed the SNPs that can alter the expression and function of transcriptional factor TP53 as a pipeline and proposed modeled structure for the mutant proteins and compared them with the native protein.
Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common type of genetic variations in humans Understanding the functions of SNPs can greatly help to understand the genetics of the human phenotype variation and especially the genetic basis of human complex diseases The method to identify functional SNPs from a pool, containing both functional and neutral SNPs is challenging by experimental protocols To explore possible relationships between genetic mutation and phenotypic variation, different computational algorithm tools like Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant, Polymorphism Phenotyping, UTRscan, FASTSNP, and PupaSuite were used for prioritization of high-risk SNPs in coding region (exonic nonsynonymous SNPs) and noncoding regions (intronic and exonic 5' and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) SNPs) In this work, we have analyzed the SNPs that can alter the expression and function of transcriptional factor TP53 as a pipeline and for providing a guide to experimental work We identified the possible mutations and proposed modeled structure for the mutant proteins and compared them with the native protein These nsSNPs play a critical role in cancer association studies aiming to explain the disparity in cancer treatment responses as well as to improve the effectiveness of the cancer treatments Our results endorse the study with in vivo experimental protocols

44 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results clearly suggest that Ritonavir is not able to appropriately bind at the active site of each HIV-1 protease mutant due to RMSD difference of the amino acid (Asp) at the position 25 of all mutants.
Abstract: We have investigated and highlighted the behavior of binding residue, Asp25 by computational analysis, which play an important role in understanding docking process with drug molecule, Ritonavir (Norvir®) and the flexibility nature of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 (HIV-1) protease enzyme. It is well known that Ritonavir is a potent and a selective HIV-1 protease inhibitor. Molecular dockings were performed in order to gain insights regarding the binding mode of this inhibitor. In our analysis, we observed Ritonavir had different rank orders of scores against different mutant of this enzyme. Asp25 of the enzyme was found to be the active site for all the mutants. The results clearly suggest that Ritonavir is not able to appropriately bind at the active site of each HIV-1 protease mutant due to RMSD difference of the amino acid (Asp) at the position 25 of all mutants. These findings support the concept that 3D space of active site is a qualitative assessment for binding affinity of inhibitor with an enzyme. The investigation on the flexibility nature of Asp25 by normal mode analysis, show that binding residue posses less flexibility due to its solvation potential. The overall analysis of our study brings clarity to the binding behavior with respect to the different mutants with Ritonavir on the basis RMSD and also on the flexible nature of HIV-1 protease enzyme with respect to Asp25 position.

33 citations


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01 May 2005

2,633 citations

Journal Article
Abstract: AACR Centennial Conference: Translational Cancer Medicine-- Nov 4-8, 2007; Singapore PL02-05 All cancers are due to abnormalities in DNA. The availability of the human genome sequence has led to the proposal that resequencing of cancer genomes will reveal the full complement of somatic mutations and hence all the cancer genes. To explore the nature of the information that will be derived from cancer genome sequencing we have sequenced the coding exons of the family of 518 protein kinases, ~1.3Mb DNA per cancer sample, in 210 cancers of diverse histological types. Despite the screen being directed toward the coding regions of a gene family that has previously been strongly implicated in oncogenesis, the results indicate that the majority of somatic mutations detected are “passengers”. There is considerable variation in the number and pattern of these mutations between individual cancers, indicating substantial diversity of processes of molecular evolution between cancers. The imprints of exogenous mutagenic exposures, mutagenic treatment regimes and DNA repair defects can all be seen in the distinctive mutational signatures of individual cancers. This systematic mutation screen and others have previously yielded a number of cancer genes that are frequently mutated in one or more cancer types and which are now anticancer drug targets (for example BRAF , PIK3CA , and EGFR ). However, detailed analyses of the data from our screen additionally suggest that there exist a large number of additional “driver” mutations which are distributed across a substantial number of genes. It therefore appears that cells may be able to utilise mutations in a large repertoire of potential cancer genes to acquire the neoplastic phenotype. However, many of these genes are employed only infrequently. These findings may have implications for future anticancer drug development.

2,611 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Although SIFT and PolyPhen may be useful in prioritizing changes that are likely to cause a loss of protein function, their low specificity means that their predictions should be interpreted with caution and further evidence to support/refute pathogenicity should be sought before reporting novel missense changes.
Abstract: Context: The interpretation of novel missense variants is a challenge with increasing numbers of such variants being identified and a responsibility to report the findings in the context of all available scientific evidence. Various in silico bioinformatic tools have been developed that predict the likely pathogenicity of missense variants; however, their utility within the diagnostic setting requires further investigation. Aim: The aim of our study was to test the predictive value of two of these tools, sorting intolerant from tolerant (SIFT) and polymorphism phenotyping (PolyPhen), in a set of 141 missense variants (131 pathogenic, 8 benign) identified in the ABCC8, GCK, and KCNJ11 genes. Methods: Sixty-six of the mutations caused a gain of protein function, while 67 were loss-of-function mutations. The evolutionary conservation at each residue was also investigated using multiple sequence alignments from the UCSC genome browser. Results: The sensitivity of SIFT and PolyPhen was reasonably high (69% and...

311 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is pointed out that the pH-optimum (pH of optimal binding affinity) varies among the protein-protein complexes, and perhaps is a result of their adaptation to particular subcellular compartments, and the similarities and differences between hetero- and homo-complexes are outlined.
Abstract: The role of electrostatics in protein–protein interactions and binding is reviewed in this paper. A brief outline of the computational modeling, in the framework of continuum electrostatics, is presented and the basic electrostatic effects occurring upon the formation of the complex are discussed. The effect of the salt concentration and pH of the water phase on protein–protein binding free energy is demonstrated which indicates that the increase of the salt concentration tends to weaken the binding, an observation that is attributed to the optimization of the charge–charge interactions across the interface. It is pointed out that the pH-optimum (pH of optimal binding affinity) varies among the protein–protein complexes, and perhaps is a result of their adaptation to particular subcellular compartments. The similarities and differences between hetero- and homo-complexes are outlined and discussed with respect to the binding mode and charge complementarity.

127 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR bicarbonate permeability are altered by CFTRBD variants through multiple mechanisms, and molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation.
Abstract: CFTR is a dynamically regulated anion channel. Intracellular WNK1-SPAK activation causes CFTR to change permeability and conductance characteristics from a chloride-preferring to bicarbonate-preferring channel through unknown mechanisms. Two severe CFTR mutations (CFTRsev) cause complete loss of CFTR function and result in cystic fibrosis (CF), a severe genetic disorder affecting sweat glands, nasal sinuses, lungs, pancreas, liver, intestines, and male reproductive system. We hypothesize that those CFTR mutations that disrupt the WNK1-SPAK activation mechanisms cause a selective, bicarbonate defect in channel function (CFTRBD) affecting organs that utilize CFTR for bicarbonate secretion (e.g. the pancreas, nasal sinus, vas deferens) but do not cause typical CF. To understand the structural and functional requirements of the CFTR bicarbonate-preferring channel, we (a) screened 984 well-phenotyped pancreatitis cases for candidate CFTRBD mutations from among 81 previously described CFTR variants; (b) conducted electrophysiology studies on clones of variants found in pancreatitis but not CF; (c) computationally constructed a new, complete structural model of CFTR for molecular dynamics simulation of wild-type and mutant variants; and (d) tested the newly defined CFTRBD variants for disease in non-pancreas organs utilizing CFTR for bicarbonate secretion. Nine variants (CFTR R74Q, R75Q, R117H, R170H, L967S, L997F, D1152H, S1235R, and D1270N) not associated with typical CF were associated with pancreatitis (OR 1.5, p = 0.002). Clones expressed in HEK 293T cells had normal chloride but not bicarbonate permeability and conductance with WNK1-SPAK activation. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest physical restriction of the CFTR channel and altered dynamic channel regulation. Comparing pancreatitis patients and controls, CFTRBD increased risk for rhinosinusitis (OR 2.3, p<0.005) and male infertility (OR 395, p<<0.0001). WNK1-SPAK pathway-activated increases in CFTR bicarbonate permeability are altered by CFTRBD variants through multiple mechanisms. CFTRBD variants are associated with clinically significant disorders of the pancreas, sinuses, and male reproductive system.

127 citations