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Calvin H. Bartholomew

Other affiliations: University of New Mexico
Bio: Calvin H. Bartholomew is an academic researcher from Brigham Young University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Catalysis & Nickel. The author has an hindex of 52, co-authored 178 publications receiving 12474 citations. Previous affiliations of Calvin H. Bartholomew include University of New Mexico.
Topics: Catalysis, Nickel, Methanation, Adsorption, Cobalt


Papers
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature treating mechanisms of catalyst deactivation is reviewed in this paper, which can be classified into six distinct types: (i) poisoning, (ii) fouling, (iii) thermal degradation, (iv) vapor compound formation accompanied by transport, (v) vapor solid and/or solid solid reactions, and (vi) attrition/crushing.
Abstract: The literature treating mechanisms of catalyst deactivation is reviewed. Intrinsic mechanisms of catalyst deactivation are many; nevertheless, they can be classified into six distinct types: (i) poisoning, (ii) fouling, (iii) thermal degradation, (iv) vapor compound formation accompanied by transport, (v) vapor-solid and/or solid-solid reactions, and (vi) attrition/crushing. As (i), (iv), and (v) are chemical in nature and (ii) and (v) are mechanical, the causes of deactivation are basically three-fold: chemical, mechanical and thermal. Each of these six mechanisms is defined and its features are illustrated by data and examples from the literature. The status of knowledge and needs for further work are also summarized for each type of deactivation mechanism. The development during the past two decades of more sophisticated surface spectroscopies and powerful computer technologies provides opportunities for obtaining substantially better understanding of deactivation mechanisms and building this understanding into comprehensive mathematical models that will enable more effective design and optimization of processes involving deactivating catalysts. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

2,526 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical) and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing).
Abstract: Deactivation of heterogeneous catalysts is a ubiquitous problem that causes loss of catalytic rate with time. This review on deactivation and regeneration of heterogeneous catalysts classifies deactivation by type (chemical, thermal, and mechanical) and by mechanism (poisoning, fouling, thermal degradation, vapor formation, vapor-solid and solid-solid reactions, and attrition/crushing). The key features and considerations for each of these deactivation types is reviewed in detail with reference to the latest literature reports in these areas. Two case studies on the deactivation mechanisms of catalysts used for cobalt Fischer-Tropsch and selective catalytic reduction are considered to provide additional depth in the topics of sintering, coking, poisoning, and fouling. Regeneration considerations and options are also briefly discussed for each deactivation mechanism.

1,173 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the causes of deactivation of supported metal catalysts by carbon or coke formation, and found that deactivation can occur due to fouling of the metal surface, blockage of catalysts pores and voids, and actual physical disintegration of the catalyst support.
Abstract: Deactivation of supported metal catalysts by carbon or coke formation is a problem of serious magnitude in steam reforming, methanation, and other important catalytic processes. Its causes are generally threefold: (1) fouling of the metal surface, (2) blockage of catalysts pores and voids, and/or (3) actual physical disintegration of the catalyst support. Since loss of catalytic activity and physical destruction of the catalyst by carbon deposits can occur rapidly (within hours or days) under unfavorable conditions, understanding and control of these effects are of major technological and economical importance.

760 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, high temperature hydrogen adsorption and conventional 298 K adsorptions of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were characterized by unsupported cobalt and cobalt supported on silica, alumina, titania, magnesia, and carbon.

490 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, specific activity and selectivity of unsupported cobalt and cobalt supported on alumina, silica, titania, carbon, and magnesia carriers for CO hydrogenation were measured in a single-pass differential reactor at low conversions, 1 atm, and 175-350 °C.

446 citations


Cited by
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056 4.1.
Abstract: 1.0. Introduction 4044 2.0. Biomass Chemistry and Growth Rates 4047 2.1. Lignocellulose and Starch-Based Plants 4047 2.2. Triglyceride-Producing Plants 4049 2.3. Algae 4050 2.4. Terpenes and Rubber-Producing Plants 4052 3.0. Biomass Gasification 4052 3.1. Gasification Chemistry 4052 3.2. Gasification Reactors 4054 3.3. Supercritical Gasification 4054 3.4. Solar Gasification 4055 3.5. Gas Conditioning 4055 4.0. Syn-Gas Utilization 4056 4.1. Hydrogen Production by Water−Gas Shift Reaction 4056

7,067 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A critical review of recent developments in hydrogenation reaction, with emphases on catalytic reactivity, reactor innovation, and reaction mechanism, provides an overview regarding the challenges and opportunities for future research in the field.
Abstract: Owing to the increasing emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), human life and the ecological environment have been affected by global warming and climate changes. To mitigate the concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere various strategies have been implemented such as separation, storage, and utilization of CO2. Although it has been explored for many years, hydrogenation reaction, an important representative among chemical conversions of CO2, offers challenging opportunities for sustainable development in energy and the environment. Indeed, the hydrogenation of CO2 not only reduces the increasing CO2 buildup but also produces fuels and chemicals. In this critical review we discuss recent developments in this area, with emphases on catalytic reactivity, reactor innovation, and reaction mechanism. We also provide an overview regarding the challenges and opportunities for future research in the field (319 references).

2,539 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature treating mechanisms of catalyst deactivation is reviewed in this paper, which can be classified into six distinct types: (i) poisoning, (ii) fouling, (iii) thermal degradation, (iv) vapor compound formation accompanied by transport, (v) vapor solid and/or solid solid reactions, and (vi) attrition/crushing.
Abstract: The literature treating mechanisms of catalyst deactivation is reviewed. Intrinsic mechanisms of catalyst deactivation are many; nevertheless, they can be classified into six distinct types: (i) poisoning, (ii) fouling, (iii) thermal degradation, (iv) vapor compound formation accompanied by transport, (v) vapor-solid and/or solid-solid reactions, and (vi) attrition/crushing. As (i), (iv), and (v) are chemical in nature and (ii) and (v) are mechanical, the causes of deactivation are basically three-fold: chemical, mechanical and thermal. Each of these six mechanisms is defined and its features are illustrated by data and examples from the literature. The status of knowledge and needs for further work are also summarized for each type of deactivation mechanism. The development during the past two decades of more sophisticated surface spectroscopies and powerful computer technologies provides opportunities for obtaining substantially better understanding of deactivation mechanisms and building this understanding into comprehensive mathematical models that will enable more effective design and optimization of processes involving deactivating catalysts. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

2,526 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A detailed study of the structure of Perovskites and their properties in the context of a reducing Atmosphere andHydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis Reactions 2006 shows that the structure and properties of these minerals have changed little in the intervening years.
Abstract: II. Structure of Perovskites 1982 A. Crystal Structure 1982 B. Nonstoichiometry in Perovskites 1983 1. Oxygen Nonstoichiometry 1983 2. Cation Nonstoichiometry 1984 C. Physical Properties 1985 D. Adsorption Properties 1986 1. CO and NO Adsorption 1986 2. Oxygen Adsorption 1987 E. Specific Surface and Porosity 1987 F. Thermal Stability in a Reducing Atmosphere 1989 III. Acid−Base and Redox Properties 1990 A. Acidity and Basicity 1990 B. Redox Processes 1991 1. Kinetics and Mechanisms 1992 2. Reduction−Oxidation Cycles 1993 C. Ion Mobility 1993 1. Oxygen Transport 1993 2. Cation Transport 1994 IV. Heterogeneous Catalysis 1995 A. Oxidation Reactions 1995 1. CO Oxidation 1995 2. Oxidation of Hydrocarbons 1996 B. Pollution Abatement 2001 1. NOx Decomposition 2001 2. Exhaust Treatment 2002 3. Stability 2004 C. Hydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis Reactions 2004 1. Hydrogenation of Carbon Oxides 2004 2. Hydrogenation and Hydrogenolysis Reactions 2006

2,253 citations