Bio: Carmen Sieiro is an academic researcher from University of Vigo. The author has contributed to research in topics: Saccharomyces cerevisiae & Fermentation. The author has an hindex of 23, co-authored 64 publications receiving 1585 citations. Previous affiliations of Carmen Sieiro include University of Santiago de Compostela & University of Santiago, Chile.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The idea is now emerging that this type of yeast enzyme could offer an alternative to fungal enzymes for industrial applications.
Abstract: When grown in the appropriate medium, several yeast species produce pectinases able to degrade pectic substances. It is mainly exocellular endopolygalacturonases that break pectins or pectate down by hydrolysis of α-1,4-glycosidic linkages in a random way. Biochemical characterisation of these enzymes has shown that they have an optimal pH in the acidic region and an optimal temperature between 40 and 55°C. Their production by yeasts is a constitutive feature and is repressed by the glucose concentration and aeration. Pectic substances and their hydrolysis products are used as carbon sources by a limited number of yeasts and hence these enzymes must be involved in the colonisation of different parts of plants, including fruits. The first yeast pectic enzyme (encoded by the PSE3 gene) was cloned from Tichosporon penicillatum. Recently, a polygalacturonase-encoding gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been cloned and overexpressed in several strains and the gene for an extracellualar endopolygalacturonase from Kluyveromyces marxianus has also been described. Taking all the results together, the idea is now emerging that this type of yeast enzyme could offer an alternative to fungal enzymes for industrial applications.
TL;DR: The enzyme exhibited an endo-splitting mechanism as deduced from viscosimetry experiments as well as from an HPLC study of the end products.
Abstract: Saccharomyces cerevisiae CECT1389 secreted an extracellular endopolygalacturonase (EC 18.104.22.168) when grown in shake flasks in medium containing galactose alone, or either galactose and polygalactur...
TL;DR: Results show that AtXYL1 encodes for an apoplastic alpha-xylosidase active against xyloglucan oligosaccharides that probably also has activity against p-nitrophenyl-alpha-D-glucoside.
Abstract: An α-xylosidase active against xyloglucan oligosaccharides was purified from cabbage ( Brassica oleracea var. capitata) leaves. Two peptide sequences were obtained from this protein, the N-terminal and an internal one, and these were used to identify an Arabidopsis gene coding for an α-xylosidase that we propose to call AtXYL1 . It has been mapped to a region of chromosome I between markers at 100.44 and 107.48 cM. AtXYL1 comprised three exons and encoded a peptide that was 915 amino acids long, with a potential signal peptide of 22 amino acids and eight possible N -glycosylation sites. The protein encoded by AtXYL1 showed the signature regions of family 31 glycosyl hydrolases, which comprises not only α-xylosidases, but also α-glucosidases. The α-xylosidase activity is present in apoplastic extractions from Arabidopsis seedlings, as suggested by the deduced signal peptide. The first eight leaves from Arabidopsis plants were harvested to analyze α-xylosidase activity and AtXYL1 expression levels. Both increased from older to younger leaves, where xyloglucan turnover is expected to be higher. When this gene was introduced in a suitable expression vector and used to transform Saccharomyces cerevisiae , significantly higher α-xylosidase activity was detected in the yeast cells. α-Glucosidase activity was also increased in the transformed cells, although to a lesser extent. These results show that AtXYL1 encodes for an apoplastic α-xylosidase active against xyloglucan oligosaccharides that probably also has activity against p -nitrophenyl-α-d-glucoside.
TL;DR: Fourteen strains of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from three wineries in the Salnés wine region at the three different periods of the natural fermentation, showing differences in the wine composition depending on the particular yeast strain used for the vinification experiments.
Abstract: Fourteen strains of the yeastSaccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated from three wineries in the Salnes wine region (N.W. Spain) at the three different periods of the natural fermentation. Each wild yeast was screened for production of acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, isobutanol,n-propanol, amylic alcohol and other important enological compounds during laboratory scale fermentations of grape juice. After 25 days at 20°C, the analytical results evidenced variations in the production of acetaldehyde (from 13.1 to 24.3 mg/l), isobutanol (from 27.7 to 51.1 mg/l), amyl alcohols (from 111 to 183 mg/l) and ethyl acetate (from 19.3 to 43.7 mg/l). Although isolated from the same wine region, differences in the wine composition were observed depending on the particular yeast strain used for the vinification experiments.
TL;DR: Fungi differ from the rest of non-photosynthetic organisms in that they have a bifunctional enzyme that displays both phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase activity.
Abstract: The synthesis of carotenoids begins with the formation of a phytoene from geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, a well conserved step in all carotenogenic organisms and catalyzed by a phytoene synthase, an enzyme encoded by the crtB (spy) genes. The next step is the dehydrogenation of the phytoene, which is carried out by phytoene dehydrogenase. In organisms with oxygenic photosynthesis, this enzyme, which accomplishes two dehydrogenations, is encoded by the crtP genes. In organisms that lack oxygenic photosynthesis, dehydrogenation is carried out by an enzyme completely unrelated to the former one, which carries out four dehydrogenations and is encoded by the crtI genes. In organisms with oxygenic photosynthesis, dehydrogenation of the phytoene is accomplished by a ζ-carotene dehydrogenase encoded by the crtQ (zds) genes. In many carotenogenic organisms, the process is completed with the cyclization of lycopene. In organisms exhibiting oxygenic photosynthesis, this step is performed by a lycopene cyclase encoded by the crtL genes. In contrast, anoxygenic photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic organisms use a different lycopene cyclase, encoded by the crtY (lyc) genes. A third and unrelated type of lycopene β-cyclase has been described in certain bacteria and archaea. Fungi differ from the rest of non-photosynthetic organisms in that they have a bifunctional enzyme that displays both phytoene synthase and lycopene cyclase activity. Carotenoids can be modified by oxygen-containing functional groups, thus originating xanthophylls. Only two enzymes are necessary for the conversion of β-carotene into astaxanthin, using several ketocarotenoids as intermediates, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. These enzymes are a β-carotene hydroxylase (crtZ genes) and a β-carotene ketolase, encoded by the crtW (bacteria) or bkt (algae) genes.
TL;DR: A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts.
Abstract: Fundamental features of microbial cellulose utilization are examined at successively higher levels of aggregation encompassing the structure and composition of cellulosic biomass, taxonomic diversity, cellulase enzyme systems, molecular biology of cellulase enzymes, physiology of cellulolytic microorganisms, ecological aspects of cellulase-degrading communities, and rate-limiting factors in nature. The methodological basis for studying microbial cellulose utilization is considered relative to quantification of cells and enzymes in the presence of solid substrates as well as apparatus and analysis for cellulose-grown continuous cultures. Quantitative description of cellulose hydrolysis is addressed with respect to adsorption of cellulase enzymes, rates of enzymatic hydrolysis, bioenergetics of microbial cellulose utilization, kinetics of microbial cellulose utilization, and contrasting features compared to soluble substrate kinetics. A biological perspective on processing cellulosic biomass is presented, including features of pretreated substrates and alternative process configurations. Organism development is considered for "consolidated bioprocessing" (CBP), in which the production of cellulolytic enzymes, hydrolysis of biomass, and fermentation of resulting sugars to desired products occur in one step. Two organism development strategies for CBP are examined: (i) improve product yield and tolerance in microorganisms able to utilize cellulose, or (ii) express a heterologous system for cellulose hydrolysis and utilization in microorganisms that exhibit high product yield and tolerance. A concluding discussion identifies unresolved issues pertaining to microbial cellulose utilization, suggests approaches by which such issues might be resolved, and contrasts a microbially oriented cellulose hydrolysis paradigm to the more conventional enzymatically oriented paradigm in both fundamental and applied contexts.
TL;DR: Pectinases are one of the most widely distributed enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants as discussed by the authors, and they have a share of 25% in the global sales of food enzymes.
Abstract: Pectinases or petinolytic enzymes, hydrolyze pectic substances. They have a share of 25% in the global sales of food enzymes. Pectinases are one of the most widely distributed enzymes in bacteria, fungi and plants. Protopectinases, polygalacturonases, lyases and pectin esterases are among the extensively studied pectinolytic enzymes. Protopectinases catalyze the solubilization of protopectin. Polygalacturonases hydrolyze the polygalacturonic acid chain by addition of water and are the most abundant among all the pectinolytic enzymes. Lyases catalyze the trans-eliminative cleavage of the galacturonic acid polymer. Pectinesterases liberate pectins and methanol by de-esterifying the methyl ester linkages of the pectin backbone. Pectinolytic enzymes are of significant importance in the current biotechnological era with their all-embracing applications in fruit juice extraction and its clarification, scouring of cotton, degumming of plant fibers, waste water treatment, vegetable oil extraction, tea and coffee fermentations, bleaching of paper, in poultry feed additives and in the alcoholic beverages and food industries. The present review mainly contemplates on the types and structure of pectic substances, the classification of pectinolytic enzymes, their assay methods, physicochemical and biological properties and a bird's eye view of their industrial applications.
TL;DR: The current available evidence regarding astaxanthin chemistry and its potential beneficial effects in humans is reviewed and an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product is reviewed.
Abstract: Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink color characteristic of that species. This application has been well documented for over two decades and is currently the major market driver for the pigment. Additionally, astaxanthin also plays a key role as an intermediary in reproductive processes. Synthetic astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis, the red yeast, Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune system boosting, bioactivity against Helycobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin consumption. Research on the health benefits of astaxanthin is very recent and has mostly been performed in vitro or at the pre-clinical level with humans. This paper reviews the current available evidence regarding astaxanthin chemistry and its potential beneficial effects in humans.
TL;DR: Genome-wide transcript profiling was used to monitor signal transduction during yeast pheromone response and global transcript analysis reflects biological responses associated with the activation and perturbation of signalTransduction pathways.
Abstract: Genome-wide transcript profiling was used to monitor signal transduction during yeast pheromone response. Genetic manipulations allowed analysis of changes in gene expression underlying pheromone signaling, cell cycle control, and polarized morphogenesis. A two-dimensional hierarchical clustered matrix, covering 383 of the most highly regulated genes, was constructed from 46 diverse experimental conditions. Diagnostic subsets of coexpressed genes reflected signaling activity, cross talk, and overlap of multiple mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Analysis of the profiles specified by two different MAPKs-Fus3p and Kss1p-revealed functional overlap of the filamentous growth and mating responses. Global transcript analysis reflects biological responses associated with the activation and perturbation of signal transduction pathways.
TL;DR: The importance of untapping the hidden wealth of indigenous yeast species present on grapes, and the selection and genetic development of yeast starter culture strains with improved flavour profiles are highlighted.
Abstract: The most mysterious aspect of wine is the endless variety of flavours that stem from a complex, completely non-linear system of interactions among many hundreds of compounds. In its widest sense, wine flavour refers to the overall impression of both aroma and taste components. Aroma is usually associated with odorous, volatile compounds; the bouquet of wine refers to the more complex flavour compounds which evolve as a result of fermentation, elevage and ageing. With the exception of terpenes in the aromatic grape varieties and alkoxypyrazines in the herbaceous cultivars, perceived flavour is the result of absolute amounts and specific ratios of many of these interactive compounds, rather than being attributable to a single "impact" compound. Without underestimating the complexity of these interactive effects or negating the definitive role played by the accumulated secondary grape metabolites in the varietal character of wine, this review will focus mainly on the contribution of yeast fermentation to the sensorial quality of the final product. Yeast and fermentation conditions are claimed to be the most important factors influencing the flavours in wine. Both spontaneous and inoculated wine fermentations are affected by the diversity of yeasts associated with the vineyard and winery. During the primary alcoholic fermentation of sugar, the wine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, together with other indigenous non-Saccharomyces species, produce ethanol, carbon dioxide and a number of by-products. Of these yeast-derived metabolites, the alcohols, acetates and C4-C8 1tfatty acid ethyl esters are found in the highest concentration in wine. While the volatile metabolites contribute to the fermentation bouquet ubiquitous to all young wines, the production levels of these by-products are variable and yeast strain specific. Therefore, this article also highlights the importance of untapping the hidden wealth of indigenous yeast species present on grapes, and the selection and genetic development of yeast starter culture strains with improved flavour profiles. In the future, some winemakers may prefer to use mixtures of indigenous yeast species and tailored S. cerevisiae strains as starter cultures to reflect the biodiversity and stylistic distinctiveness of a given region. This will help winemakers to fullfil the consumer's demand for individual wines with intact local character and to ensure the survival of wine's most enthralling aspect - its endless variety.