Bio: Carolyn Ee is an academic researcher from University of Sydney. The author has contributed to research in topics: Randomized controlled trial & Acupuncture. The author has an hindex of 10, co-authored 49 publications receiving 614 citations. Previous affiliations of Carolyn Ee include RMIT University & University of Melbourne.
TL;DR: This work is presented at the I1 World Congress for Integrative Medicine & Health 2017 a global forum for exploring the future of comprehensive patient care in Washington, DC.
Abstract: I1 World Congress for Integrative Medicine & Health 2017 A global forum for exploring the future of comprehensive patient care Benno Brinkhaus, Torkel Falkenberg, Aviad Haramati, and Stefan N. Willich Institute for Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany; Department of Neurobiology Care Sciences and Society, Division of Nursing, Research Group Integrative Care, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; I C – The Integrative Care Science Center, Järna, Sweden; Department of Biochemistry, Molecular and Cellular Biology, Georgetown University, Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA; Department of Medicine, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC, USA BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2017, 17(Suppl 1):I1
TL;DR: Low-quality evidence that massage provided a greater reduction in pain intensity than usual care during the first stage of labour is found, and the majority of trials had a high risk of performance bias and detection bias, and an unclear risk of reporting bias.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Many women would like to avoid pharmacological or invasive methods of pain management in labour, and this may contribute towards the popularity of complementary methods of pain management. This review examined the evidence currently available on manual methods, including massage and reflexology, for pain management in labour. This review is an update of the review first published in 2012. OBJECTIVES To assess the effect, safety and acceptability of massage, reflexology and other manual methods to manage pain in labour. SEARCH METHODS For this update, we searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (30 June 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1966 to 30 June 2017, CINAHL (1980 to 30 June 2017), the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (4 August 2017), Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (4 August 2017), ClinicalTrials.gov, (4 August 2017), the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (4 August 2017), the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (4 August 2017) and reference lists of retrieved trials. SELECTION CRITERIA We included randomised controlled trials comparing manual methods with standard care, other non-pharmacological forms of pain management in labour, no treatment or placebo. We searched for trials of the following modalities: massage, warm packs, thermal manual methods, reflexology, chiropractic, osteopathy, musculo-skeletal manipulation, deep tissue massage, neuro-muscular therapy, shiatsu, tuina, trigger point therapy, myotherapy and zero balancing. We excluded trials for pain management relating to hypnosis, aromatherapy, acupuncture and acupressure; these are included in other Cochrane reviews. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently assessed trial quality, extracted data and checked data for accuracy. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We assessed the quality of the evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS We included a total of 14 trials; 10 of these (1055 women) contributed data to meta-analysis. Four trials, involving 274 women, met our inclusion criteria but did not contribute data to the review. Over half the trials had a low risk of bias for random sequence generation and attrition bias. The majority of trials had a high risk of performance bias and detection bias, and an unclear risk of reporting bias. We found no trials examining the effectiveness of reflexology.MassageWe found low-quality evidence that massage provided a greater reduction in pain intensity (measured using self-reported pain scales) than usual care during the first stage of labour (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.06 to -0.56, six trials, 362 women). Two trials reported on pain intensity during the second and third stages of labour, and there was evidence of a reduction in pain scores in favour of massage (SMD -0.98, 95% CI -2.23 to 0.26, 124 women; and SMD -1.03, 95% CI -2.17 to 0.11, 122 women). There was very low-quality evidence showing no clear benefit of massage over usual care for the length of labour (in minutes) (mean difference (MD) 20.64, 95% CI -58.24 to 99.52, six trials, 514 women), and pharmacological pain relief (average risk ratio (RR) 0.81, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.74, four trials, 105 women). There was very low-quality evidence showing no clear benefit of massage for assisted vaginal birth (average RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.44 to 1.13, four trials, 368 women) and caesarean section (RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.51 to 1.09, six trials, 514 women). One trial reported less anxiety during the first stage of labour for women receiving massage (MD -16.27, 95% CI -27.03 to -5.51, 60 women). One trial found an increased sense of control from massage (MD 14.05, 95% CI 3.77 to 24.33, 124 women, low-quality evidence). Two trials examining satisfaction with the childbirth experience reported data on different scales; both found more satisfaction with massage, although the evidence was low quality in one study and very low in the other.Warm packsWe found very low-quality evidence for reduced pain (Visual Analogue Scale/VAS) in the first stage of labour (SMD -0.59, 95% CI -1.18 to -0.00, three trials, 191 women), and the second stage of labour (SMD -1.49, 95% CI -2.85 to -0.13, two trials, 128 women). Very low-quality evidence showed reduced length of labour (minutes) in the warm-pack group (MD -66.15, 95% CI -91.83 to -40.47; two trials; 128 women).Thermal manual methodsOne trial evaluated thermal manual methods versus usual care and found very low-quality evidence of reduced pain intensity during the first phase of labour for women receiving thermal methods (MD -1.44, 95% CI -2.24 to -0.65, one trial, 96 women). There was a reduction in the length of labour (minutes) (MD -78.24, 95% CI -118.75 to -37.73, one trial, 96 women, very low-quality evidence). There was no clear difference for assisted vaginal birth (very low-quality evidence). Results were similar for cold packs versus usual care, and intermittent hot and cold packs versus usual care, for pain intensity, length of labour and assisted vaginal birth.Music One trial that compared manual methods with music found very low-quality evidence of reduced pain intensity during labour in the massage group (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.89, 101 women). There was no evidence of benefit for reduced use of pharmacological pain relief (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.08, very low-quality evidence).Of the seven outcomes we assessed using GRADE, only pain intensity was reported in all comparisons. Satisfaction with the childbirth experience, sense of control, and caesarean section were rarely reported in any of the comparisons. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Massage, warm pack and thermal manual methods may have a role in reducing pain, reducing length of labour and improving women's sense of control and emotional experience of labour, although the quality of evidence varies from low to very low and few trials reported on the key GRADE outcomes. Few trials reported on safety as an outcome. There is a need for further research to address these outcomes and to examine the effectiveness and efficacy of these manual methods for pain management.
TL;DR: Limited evidence supports acupuncture use in treating pregnancy-related pelvic and back pain, and additional high-quality trials are needed to test the existing promising evidence for this relatively safe and popular complementary therapy.
Abstract: The objective of our study was to review the effectiveness of needle acupuncture in treating the common and disabling problem of pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Two small trials on mixed pelvic/back pain and 1 large high-quality trial on pelvic pain met the inclusion criteria. Acupuncture, as an adjunct to standard treatment, was superior to standard treatment alone and physiotherapy in relieving mixed pelvic/back pain. Women with well-defined pelvic pain had greater relief of pain with a combination of acupuncture and standard treatment, compared to standard treatment alone or stabilizing exercises and standard treatment. We used a narrative synthesis due to significant clinical heterogeneity between trials. Few and minor adverse events were reported. We conclude that limited evidence supports acupuncture use in treating pregnancy-related pelvic and back pain. Additional high-quality trials are needed to test the existing promising evidence for this relatively safe and popular complementary therapy.
TL;DR: The available evidence supporting the use of acupuncture or acupressure to treat premenstrual syndrome and associated disorders was examined, with the main limitations being imprecision due to small sample sizes and risk of bias related to detection bias and selective reporting.
Abstract: Background Acupuncture has a history of traditional use in China for women's health conditions including premenstrual syndrome (PMS), but its effectiveness for this condition remains unclear. This review examined the available evidence supporting the use of acupuncture or acupressure to treat PMS. Objectives To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture or acupressure for women with PMS or premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Search methods We searched the Cochrane Gynaecology and Fertility Specialised Register, Cochrane Central Register of Studies Online (CENTRAL CRSO), MEDLINE, Embase, AMED, PsycINFO, CINAHL (from inception to 21 September 2017), two clinical trial databases (from their inception to 21 September 2017), and four electronic databases in China (from their inception to 15 October 2017): Chinese Biomedical Literature database (CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), VIP information/ Chinese Scientific Journals database and WANFANG. Reference lists from included articles were handsearched. Selection criteria We included studies if they randomised women with PMS and associated disorders (PMDD and late luteal phase dysphoric disorder/LPDD) to receive acupuncture or acupressure versus sham, usual care/waiting-list control or pharmaceutical interventions mentioned by the International Society for Premenstrual Disorders (ISPMD). If acupuncture or acupressure were combined with another therapy, these studies were also included where the additional therapy was the same in both groups. Cross-over studies were eligible for inclusion, but only data from the first phase could be used. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently selected the studies, assessed eligible studies for risk of bias, and extracted data from each study. Study authors were contacted for missing information. The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Our primary outcomes were overall premenstrual symptoms and adverse events. Secondary outcomes included specific PMS symptoms, response rate and quality of life. Main results Five trials (277 women) were included in this review. No trials compared acupuncture or acupressure versus other active treatments. The number of treatment sessions ranged from seven to 28. The quality of the evidence ranged from low to very low quality, the main limitations being imprecision due to small sample sizes and risk of bias related to detection bias and selective reporting.Acupuncture versus sham acupunctureAcupuncture may provide a greater reduction in mood-related PMS symptoms (mean difference (MD) -9.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) -10.71 to -7.35, one randomised controlled trial (RCT), n = 67, low-quality evidence) and in physical PMS symptoms (MD -9.11, 95% CI -10.82 to -7.40, one RCT, n = 67, low-quality evidence) than sham acupuncture, as measured by the Daily Record of Severity of Problems scale (DRSP). The evidence suggests that if women have a mood score of 51.91 points with sham acupuncture, their score with acupuncture would be between 10.71 and 7.35 points lower and if women have a physical score of 46.11 points, their score with acupuncture would be between 10.82 and 7.4 points lower.There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was any difference between the groups in the rate of adverse events (risk ratio (RR) 1.74, 95% CI 0.39 to 7.76, three RCTs, n = 167, I2 = 0%, very low-quality evidence).Specific PMS symptoms were not reportedThere may be little or no difference between the groups in response rates. Use of a fixed-effect model suggested a higher response rate in the acupuncture group than in the sham group (RR 2.59, 95% CI 1.71 to 3.92; participants = 100; studies = 2; I2 = 82%), but owing to the high heterogeneity we tested the effect of using a random-effects model, which provided no clear evidence of benefit for acupuncture (RR 4.22, 95% CI 0.45 to 39.88, two RCTs, n = 100, I2 = 82%, very low-quality evidence).Acupuncture may improve quality of life (measured by the WHOQOL-BREF) compared to sham (MD 2.85, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.23, one RCT, n = 67, low-quality evidence).Acupuncture versus no treatmentDue to the very low quality of the evidence, we are uncertain whether acupuncture reduces PMS symptoms compared to a no treatment control (MD -13.60, 95% CI -15.70 to -11.50, one RCT, n = 14).No adverse events were reported in either group.No data were available on specific PMS symptoms, response rate or quality of life outcomes.Acupressure versus sham acupressureWe found low-quality evidence that acupressure may reduce the number of women with moderate to severe PMS symptoms at the end of the trial compared to sham acupressure (RR 0.64 95% CI 0.52 to 0.79, one RCT, n = 90, low-quality evidence). The evidence suggests that if 97 women out of 100 in the sham acupressure group had moderate to severe PMS symptoms, the number of women in the acupressure group with moderate to severe symptoms would be 50 to 76 women.Acupressure may improve both physical (MD 24.3, 95% CI 17.18 to 31.42, one RCT, n = 90, low-quality evidence) and mental (MD 17.17, 95% CI 13.08 to 21.26, one RCT, n = 90, low-quality evidence) quality of life.No data were available on adverse events, specific symptoms or response rates. Authors' conclusions The limited evidence available suggests that acupuncture and acupressure may improve both physical and psychological symptoms of PMS when compared to a sham control. There was insufficient evidence to determine whether there was a difference between the groups in rates of adverse events.There is no evidence comparing acupuncture or acupressure versus current ISPMD recommended treatments for PMS such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Further research is required, using validated outcome measures for PMS, adequate blinding and suitable comparator groups reflecting current best practice.
TL;DR: Evidence on dietary inflammation in SMI is summarized, the directionality of these links is explored, and the potential use of targeted nutritional interventions for improving psychological well-being and physical health outcomes in S MI is discussed.
Abstract: Severe mental illnesses (SMI), including major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, and schizophrenia, are associated with increased inflammation. Given diet's role in modulating inflammatory processes, excessive calorie-dense, nutrient-deficient processed food intake may contribute toward the heightened inflammation observed in SMI. This review assesses the evidence from observational and experimental studies to investigate how diet may affect physical and mental health outcomes in SMI through inflammation-related pathways. Cross-sectional studies indicate that individuals with SMI, particularly schizophrenia, consume more pro-inflammatory foods and fewer anti-inflammatory nutrients than the general population. Cohort studies indicate that high levels of dietary inflammation are associated with increased risk of developing depression, but there is currently a lack of evidence for schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Randomized controlled trials show that dietary interventions improve symptoms of depression, but none have tested the extent to which these benefits are due to changes in inflammation. This review summarizes evidence on dietary inflammation in SMI, explores the directionality of these links, and discusses the potential use of targeted nutritional interventions for improving psychological well-being and physical health outcomes in SMI. Establishing the extent to which diet explains elevated levels of inflammatory markers observed in SMI is a priority for future research.
01 Dec 2003
TL;DR: In this article, mental health issues often co-occur with other problems such as substance abuse, and they can take an enormous toll on individuals and impact a college or university in many ways.
Abstract: Mental health issues often co-occur with other problems such as substance abuse, and they can take an enormous toll on individuals and impact a college or university in many ways. There are staff and departments both onand off-campus who are concerned about the well-being of students and the impact of mental health issues, so partnerships around mental health promotion and suicide prevention make good sense.
TL;DR: Cardiorespiratory training and, to a lesser extent, mixed training reduce disability during or after usual stroke care; this could be mediated by improved mobility and balance.
Abstract: Stroke patients have impaired physical fitness and this may exacerbate their disability. It is not known whether improving physical fitness after stroke reduces disability. Objectives The primary aims were to establish whether physical fitness training reduces death, dependence and disability after stroke. The secondary aims included an investigation of the effects of fitness training on secondary outcome measures (including, physical fitness, mobility, physical function, health and quality of life, mood and the incidence of adverse events). Randomised controlled trials were included when an intervention represented a clear attempt to improve either muscle strength and/or cardiorespiratory fitness, and whose control groups comprised either usual care or a non-exercise intervention. A total of 12 trials were included in the review. No trials reported death and dependence data. Two small trials reporting disability showed no evidence of benefit. The remaining available secondary outcome data suggest that cardiorespiratory training improves walking ability (mobility). Observed benefits appear to be associated with specific or 'task-related' training.
31 Dec 2017
TL;DR: In this paper, the prospective relationship between physical activity and incident depression was examined and potential moderators were explored, which supported the notion that physical activity can confer protection against the emergence of depression regardless of age and geographical region.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE The authors examined the prospective relationship between physical activity and incident depression and explored potential moderators. METHOD Prospective cohort studies evaluating incident depression were searched from database inception through Oct. 18, 2017, on PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase, and SPORTDiscus. Demographic and clinical data, data on physical activity and depression assessments, and odds ratios, relative risks, and hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals were extracted. Random-effects meta-analyses were conducted, and the potential sources of heterogeneity were explored. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS A total of 49 unique prospective studies (N=266,939; median proportion of males across studies, 47%) were followed up for 1,837,794 person-years. Compared with people with low levels of physical activity, those with high levels had lower odds of developing depression (adjusted odds ratio=0.83, 95% CI=0.79, 0.88; I2=0.00). Furthermore, physical activity had a protective effect against the emergence of depression in youths (adjusted odds ratio=0.90, 95% CI=0.83, 0.98), in adults (adjusted odds ratio=0.78, 95% CI=0.70, 0.87), and in elderly persons (adjusted odds ratio=0.79, 95% CI=0.72, 0.86). Protective effects against depression were found across geographical regions, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 0.65 to 0.84 in Asia, Europe, North America, and Oceania, and against increased incidence of positive screen for depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio=0.84, 95% CI=0.79, 0.89) or major depression diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio=0.86, 95% CI=0.75, 0.98). No moderators were identified. Results were consistent for unadjusted odds ratios and for adjusted and unadjusted relative risks/hazard ratios. Overall study quality was moderate to high (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale score, 6.3). Although significant publication bias was found, adjusting for this did not change the magnitude of the associations. CONCLUSIONS Available evidence supports the notion that physical activity can confer protection against the emergence of depression regardless of age and geographical region.
TL;DR: There was moderate-quality evidence that acupuncture significantly reduced evening pain better than exercise; both were better than usual care and function improved more when acupuncture was started at 26- rather than 20- weeks' gestation.
Abstract: Background More than two-thirds of pregnant women experience low-back pain (LBP) and almost one-fifth experience pelvic pain. Pain increases with advancing pregnancy and interferes with work, daily activities and sleep. Objectives To assess the effects of interventions for preventing and treating pelvic and back pain in pregnancy. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (18 July 2012), identified related studies and reviews from the Cochrane Back Review Group search strategy to July 2012, and checked reference lists from identified reviews and studies. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any treatment to prevent or reduce the incidence or severity of pelvic or back pain in pregnancy. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data. Quality of the evidence for outcomes was assessed using the five criteria outlined by the GRADE Working Group. Main results We included 26 randomised trials examining 4093 pregnant women in this updated review. Eleven trials examined LBP (N = 1312), four examined pelvic pain (N = 661), and 11 trials examined lumbo-pelvic (LBP and pelvic) pain (N = 2120). Diagnoses ranged from self-reported symptoms to the results of specific tests. All interventions were added to usual prenatal care and unless noted, were compared to usual prenatal care. For LBP, there was low-quality evidence that in general, the addition of exercise significantly reduced pain (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI) -1.07 to -0.53; six RCTs, N = 543), and disability (SMD -0.56; 95% CI -0.89 to -0.23; two RCTs, N = 146); and water-based exercise significantly reduced LBP-related sick leave (risk ratio (RR) 0.40; 95% CI 0.17 to 0.92; one RCT, N = 241). Low-quality evidence from single trials suggested no significant difference in pain or function between two types of pelvic support belt, between osteopathic manipulation (OMT) and usual care or sham ultrasound (sham US). Very low-quality evidence suggested that a specially-designed pillow may relieve night pain better than a regular pillow. For pelvic pain, there was moderate-quality evidence that acupuncture significantly reduced evening pain better than exercise; both were better than usual care. Low-quality evidence from single trials suggested that adding a rigid belt to exercise improved average pain but not function; acupuncture was significantly better than sham acupuncture for improving evening pain and function, but not average pain; and evening pain relief was the same following either deep or superficial acupuncture. For lumbo-pelvic pain, there was moderate-quality evidence that an eight- to 20-week exercise program reduced the risk of women reporting lumbo-pelvic pain (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.73 to 1.00; four RCTs, N = 1344); but a 16- to 20-week training program was no more successful than usual care at preventing pelvic pain (one RCT, N = 257). Low-quality evidence suggested that exercise significantly reduced lumbo-pelvic-related sick leave (RR 0.76; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.94, two RCTs, N = 1062), and improved function. Low-quality evidence from single trials suggested that OMT significantly reduced pain and improved function; either a multi-modal intervention that included manual therapy, exercise and education (MOM) or usual care significantly reduced disability, but only MOM improved pain and physical function; acupuncture improved pain and function more than usual care or physiotherapy; pain and function improved more when acupuncture was started at 26- rather than 20- weeks' gestation; and auricular (ear) acupuncture significantly improved these outcomes more than sham acupuncture. When reported, adverse events were minor and transient. Authors' conclusions Moderate-quality evidence suggested that acupuncture or exercise, tailored to the stage of pregnancy, significantly reduced evening pelvic pain or lumbo-pelvic pain more than usual care alone, acupuncture was significantly more effective than exercise for reducing evening pelvic pain, and a 16- to 20-week training program was no more successful than usual prenatal care at preventing pelvic or LBP. Low-quality evidence suggested that exercise significantly reduced pain and disability from LBP. There was low-quality evidence from single trials for other outcomes because of high risk of bias and sparse data; clinical heterogeneity precluded pooling. Publication bias and selective reporting cannot be ruled out. Physiotherapy, OMT, acupuncture, a multi-modal intervention, or the addition of a rigid pelvic belt to exercise seemed to relieve pelvic or back pain more than usual care alone. Acupuncture was more effective than physiotherapy at relieving evening lumbo-pelvic pain and disability and improving pain and function when it was started at 26- rather than 20-weeks' gestation, although the effects were small. There was no significant difference in LBP and function for different support belts, exercise, neuro emotional technique or spinal manipulation (SMT), or in evening pelvic pain between deep and superficial acupuncture. Very low-quality evidence suggested a specially-designed pillow may reduce night-time LBP. Further research is very likely to have an important impact on our confidence in the estimates of effect and is likely to change the estimates. Future research would benefit from the introduction of an agreed classification system that can be used to categorise women according to presenting symptoms.
TL;DR: There was a substantial decrease in the need for additional pain relief in women receiving epidural analgesia compared with opioid analgesia, and a higher proportion were satisfied with their pain relief, reporting it to be "excellent or very good" (average risk ratio (RR) 1.47).
Abstract: Background Epidural analgesia is a central nerve block technique achieved by injection of a local anaesthetic close to the nerves that transmit pain, and is widely used as a form of pain relief in labour. However, there are concerns about unintended adverse effects on the mother and infant. This is an update of an existing Cochrane Review (Epidural versus non‐epidural or no analgesia in labour), last published in 2011.