Chad A. Mirkin
Other affiliations: Boston University, University of Delaware, Harold Washington College ...read more
Bio: Chad A. Mirkin is an academic researcher from Northwestern University. The author has contributed to research in topics: Dip-pen nanolithography & Nanolithography. The author has an hindex of 164, co-authored 1078 publications receiving 134254 citations. Previous affiliations of Chad A. Mirkin include Boston University & University of Delaware.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: A method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition is described.
Abstract: COLLOIDAL particles of metals and semiconductors have potentially useful optical, optoelectronic and material properties1–4 that derive from their small (nanoscopic) size. These properties might lead to applications including chemical sensors, spectro-scopic enhancers, quantum dot and nanostructure fabrication, and microimaging methods2–4. A great deal of control can now be exercised over the chemical composition, size and polydis-persity1,2 of colloidal particles, and many methods have been developed for assembling them into useful aggregates and materials. Here we describe a method for assembling colloidal gold nanoparticles rationally and reversibly into macroscopic aggregates. The method involves attaching to the surfaces of two batches of 13-nm gold particles non-complementary DNA oligo-nucleotides capped with thiol groups, which bind to gold. When we add to the solution an oligonucleotide duplex with 'sticky ends' that are complementary to the two grafted sequences, the nanoparticles self-assemble into aggregates. This assembly process can be reversed by thermal denaturation. This strategy should now make it possible to tailor the optical, electronic and structural properties of the colloidal aggregates by using the specificity of DNA interactions to direct the interactions between particles of different size and composition.
TL;DR: A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported, which can detect about 10 femtomoles of an oligonucleotide.
Abstract: A highly selective, colorimetric polynucleotide detection method based on mercaptoalkyloligonucleotide-modified gold nanoparticle probes is reported. Introduction of a single-stranded target oligonucleotide (30 bases) into a solution containing the appropriate probes resulted in the formation of a polymeric network of nanoparticles with a concomitant red-to-pinkish/purple color change. Hybridization was facilitated by freezing and thawing of the solutions, and the denaturation of these hybrid materials showed transition temperatures over a narrow range that allowed differentiation of a variety of imperfect targets. Transfer of the hybridization mixture to a reverse-phase silica plate resulted in a blue color upon drying that could be detected visually. The unoptimized system can detect about 10 femtomoles of an oligonucleotide.
TL;DR: Nathaniel L. Rosi focuses on the rational assembly of DNA-modified nanostructures into larger-scale materials and their roles in biodiagnostic screening for nucleic acids.
Abstract: In the last 10 years the field of molecular diagnostics has witnessed an explosion of interest in the use of nanomaterials in assays for gases, metal ions, and DNA and protein markers for many diseases. Intense research has been fueled by the need for practical, robust, and highly sensitive and selective detection agents that can address the deficiencies of conventional technologies. Chemists are playing an important role in designing and fabricating new materials for application in diagnostic assays. In certain cases assays based upon nanomaterials have offered significant advantages over conventional diagnostic systems with regard to assay sensitivity, selectivity, and practicality. Some of these new methods have recently been reviewed elsewhere with a focus on the materials themselves or as subclassifications in more generalized overviews of biological applications of nanomaterials.1-7 We intend to review some of the major advances and milestones in the field of detection systems based upon nanomaterials and their roles in biodiagnostic screening for nucleic acids, * To whom correspondence should be addressed. Phone: 847-4913907. Fax: 847-467-5123. E-mail: email@example.com. Nathaniel L. Rosi earned his B.A. degree at Grinnell College (1999) and his Ph.D. degree from the University of Michigan (2003), where he studied the design, synthesis, and gas storage applications of metal−organic frameworks under the guidance of Professor Omar M. Yaghi. In 2003 he began postdoctoral studies as a member of Professor Mirkin’s group at Northwestern University. His current research focuses on the rational assembly of DNA-modified nanostructures into larger-scale materials.
TL;DR: This light-driven process results in a colloid with distinctive optical properties that directly relate to the nanoprism shape of the particles, which could be useful in developing multicolor diagnostic labels on the basis of nanoparticle composition and size but also of shape.
Abstract: A photoinduced method for converting large quantities of silver nanospheres into triangular nanoprisms is reported. The photo-process has been characterized by time-dependent ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, allowing for the observation of several key intermediates in and characteristics of the conversion process. This light-driven process results in a colloid with distinctive optical properties that directly relate to the nanoprism shape of the particles. Theoretical calculations coupled with experimental observations allow for the assignment of the nanoprism plasmon bands and for the first identification of two distinct quadrupole plasmon resonances for a nanoparticle. Unlike the spherical particles they are derived from that Rayleigh light-scatter in the blue, these nanoprisms exhibit scattering in the red, which could be useful in developing multicolor diagnostic labels on the basis not only of nanoparticle composition and size but also of shape.
TL;DR: Six dissimilar DNA targets with six Raman-labeled nanoparticle probes were distinguished, as well as two RNA targets with single nucleotide polymorphisms, and the current unoptimized detection limit of this method is 20 femtomolar.
Abstract: Multiplexed detection of oligonucleotide targets has been performed with gold nanoparticle probes labeled with oligonucleotides and Raman-active dyes. The gold nanoparticles facilitate the formation of a silver coating that acts as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering promoter for the dye-labeled particles that have been captured by target molecules and an underlying chip in microarray format. The strategy provides the high-sensitivity and high-selectivity attributes of gray-scale scanometric detection but adds multiplexing and ratioing capabilities because a very large number of probes can be designed based on the concept of using a Raman tag as a narrow-band spectroscopic fingerprint. Six dissimilar DNA targets with six Raman-labeled nanoparticle probes were distinguished, as well as two RNA targets with single nucleotide polymorphisms. The current unoptimized detection limit of this method is 20 femtomolar.
01 May 1993
TL;DR: Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems.
Abstract: Three parallel algorithms for classical molecular dynamics are presented. The first assigns each processor a fixed subset of atoms; the second assigns each a fixed subset of inter-atomic forces to compute; the third assigns each a fixed spatial region. The algorithms are suitable for molecular dynamics models which can be difficult to parallelize efficiently—those with short-range forces where the neighbors of each atom change rapidly. They can be implemented on any distributed-memory parallel machine which allows for message-passing of data between independently executing processors. The algorithms are tested on a standard Lennard-Jones benchmark problem for system sizes ranging from 500 to 100,000,000 atoms on several parallel supercomputers--the nCUBE 2, Intel iPSC/860 and Paragon, and Cray T3D. Comparing the results to the fastest reported vectorized Cray Y-MP and C90 algorithm shows that the current generation of parallel machines is competitive with conventional vector supercomputers even for small problems. For large problems, the spatial algorithm achieves parallel efficiencies of 90% and a 1840-node Intel Paragon performs up to 165 faster than a single Cray C9O processor. Trade-offs between the three algorithms and guidelines for adapting them to more complex molecular dynamics simulations are also discussed.
28 Jul 2005
TL;DR: This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for "experimenters") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment.
Abstract: THE DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF EXPERIMENTS. By Oscar Kempthorne. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1952. 631 pp. $8.50. This book by a teacher of statistics (as well as a consultant for \"experimenters\") is a comprehensive study of the philosophical background for the statistical design of experiment. It is necessary to have some facility with algebraic notation and manipulation to be able to use the volume intelligently. The problems are presented from the theoretical point of view, without such practical examples as would be helpful for those not acquainted with mathematics. The mathematical justification for the techniques is given. As a somewhat advanced treatment of the design and analysis of experiments, this volume will be interesting and helpful for many who approach statistics theoretically as well as practically. With emphasis on the \"why,\" and with description given broadly, the author relates the subject matter to the general theory of statistics and to the general problem of experimental inference. MARGARET J. ROBERTSON
TL;DR: A review of gold nanoparticles can be found in this article, where the most stable metal nanoparticles, called gold colloids (AuNPs), have been used for catalysis and biology applications.
Abstract: Although gold is the subject of one of the most ancient themes of investigation in science, its renaissance now leads to an exponentially increasing number of publications, especially in the context of emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology with nanoparticles and self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). We will limit the present review to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), also called gold colloids. AuNPs are the most stable metal nanoparticles, and they present fascinating aspects such as their assembly of multiple types involving materials science, the behavior of the individual particles, size-related electronic, magnetic and optical properties (quantum size effect), and their applications to catalysis and biology. Their promises are in these fields as well as in the bottom-up approach of nanotechnology, and they will be key materials and building block in the 21st century. Whereas the extraction of gold started in the 5th millennium B.C. near Varna (Bulgaria) and reached 10 tons per year in Egypt around 1200-1300 B.C. when the marvelous statue of Touthankamon was constructed, it is probable that “soluble” gold appeared around the 5th or 4th century B.C. in Egypt and China. In antiquity, materials were used in an ecological sense for both aesthetic and curative purposes. Colloidal gold was used to make ruby glass 293 Chem. Rev. 2004, 104, 293−346
TL;DR: In this article, a general approach for multilayers by consecutive adsorption of polyanions and polycations has been proposed and has been extended to other materials such as proteins or colloids.
Abstract: Multilayer films of organic compounds on solid surfaces have been studied for more than 60 years because they allow fabrication of multicomposite molecular assemblies of tailored architecture. However, both the Langmuir-Blodgett technique and chemisorption from solution can be used only with certain classes of molecules. An alternative approach—fabrication of multilayers by consecutive adsorption of polyanions and polycations—is far more general and has been extended to other materials such as proteins or colloids. Because polymers are typically flexible molecules, the resulting superlattice architectures are somewhat fuzzy structures, but the absence of crystallinity in these films is expected to be beneficial for many potential applications.