Bio: Champika Liyanage is an academic researcher. The author has an hindex of 1, co-authored 1 publications receiving 10 citations.
09 Jul 2018
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated human behaviour during fire evacuations in multi-storey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants face and found that occupants remain reluctant to use a lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology.
Abstract: Purpose - The paper aims to investigate human behaviour during fire evacuations in multistorey residential buildings through a focus on the challenges and obstacles that occupants face. Any variations in response behaviours that are relevant to the evacuation strategies/plans in the UK context of occupancy typical of multi-storey buildings in large cities. Design/methodology/approach - A literature review was conducted to identify the factors occupants face and also the decision-making of occupants regarding methods of egress. A mixed research method was adopted using interviews and a questionnaire survey. The findings from the interviews and survey are benchmarked against the information gathered from the literature review. Findings - The paper identifies various challenges that occupants face when evacuating a multi-storey residential building. In terms of the decision-making process, the research results evidence that occupants could be given more information on the evacuation procedures within their specific building. The paper also finds that occupants remain reluctant to use a lift during evacuation in fire event, irrespective of any signage clearly stating that is appropriate to do so in the context of modern lift technology. Originality/Value - This paper contributes to the body of knowledge available on the evacuation of multi-storey buildings located in large cities within the UK, outlining potential areas for future research, focused on providing an insight of the behavioural decisions made by the occupants make when evacuating a building in the event of a fire.
01 Jan 2010
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify the underlying pathogens that clients and contractors perceive to contribute to disputes in construction projects, which can provide an ameliorated understanding of the origin of disputes and therefore enable their prevention.
Abstract: Purpose – While a considerable amount of knowledge has been accumulated about dispute causation, disputes continue to prevail and disharmonise the process of construction with considerable cost. This paper seeks to identify the underlying pathogens that clients and contractors perceive to contribute to disputes in construction projects. The identification of pathogens can provide an ameliorated understanding of the origin of disputes and therefore enable their prevention.Design/methodology/approach – Case law and focus groups with a client and contracting organisation from Western Australia are used to determine the pathogens of disputes.Findings – Analysis of the case law findings revealed that the underlying issues that were brought to litigation were to do with points of law, namely “civil procedure”. A significant number of disputes are thus settled using alternative dispute resolution methods such as adjudication, arbitration and mediation. For clients the underlying latent conditions that resulted i...
TL;DR: A fire emergency management system (FEMS) that considers the behavior decisions of building users (behaviors such as escape, wait for rescue, and fire extinguishing) is built and the moving distance of the Test Group equipped with FEMS is 30% shorter than the Control Group, and the total time spent is reduced by 48%.
TL;DR: This paper argued that failure to learn is a large obstacle to progress and pointed out that failure is an acquired trait and not something we are born with, and that we should not expect to be perfect first time.
Abstract: Black Box Thinking challenges the culture, sadly present in medicine, that when mistakes occur fingers of blame must be pointed. Mistakes have a ‘signature pattern’, but one of the tragedies in medicine is how a closed minded and defensive approach stops change that may prevent recurrent errors. This book emphasises how failure to learn is a large obstacle to progress. It also raises the important topic of ‘cognitive dissonance’, and how when a mistake is presented clearly to us, the need to ‘save face’ impedes development. This book would be of benefit to a wide variety of people, not just GPs and other allied healthcare professionals. It challenges the reader to view errors as opportunities to learn rather than apportion blame, and to be open minded about changing ineffective processes. Syed makes the point that we learn from actively doing things; that we learn from action. He also makes the point that young children do not have a fear of failure; the fear of failure is an acquired trait and not something we are born with. As clinicians, we talk about children progressing through developmental milestones. Children don’t fear falling over when trying to walk, they try walking and when they fall, get back up again, carry on and learn from it. We learn more by actively doing tasks ‘bottom-up’ in real life, rather than from ‘top-down’ theory. We learn by practising skills and we should therefore not expect to be perfect first time. Syed discusses the story of how David Beckham continuously practised his footballing skills, kicking a football many thousands of times, learning from each attempt, before moving onto a new skill. In business, Sir James Dyson made thousands of refinements before patenting his vacuum cleaner (that made him a multi-billionaire), each iteration learning from the former to make improvements before arriving at the end product. The key point, illustrated by these examples, is that we must practise many times, and learn from each attempt, refining and re-iterating, reflecting on what went well and what didn’t, before we progress towards mastery of a skill. This is true not only in sport or business, but in medicine; as clinicians, we must be prepared to learn from each clinical encounter as we gain competency.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors focused on investigating fire emergency evacuation procedures for differently-abled people in high-rise buildings, and highlighted the main gaps in the evacuation procedures and improvements required.
Abstract: The incidence of disability is increasing globally over the past decades. Despite the increased proportion of disabled individuals, established fire emergency evacuation procedures for disabled in high-rise buildings are lacking attention. Hence, this paper aims to focus on investigating fire emergency evacuation procedures for differently-abled people in high-rise buildings.,To address the gap, the case study strategy under the qualitative research approach was deployed by focussing 10 high-rise buildings. Data collected through semi-structured interviews and document reviews were analysed using content analysis.,The study findings revealed that even though a fire disaster is a major area to be considered, there is a noticeable gap in legal requirements related to differently-abled fire evacuation in Sri Lanka compared to the global context. Moreover, it was identified that importance given to differently enabled fire evacuations procedures varied based on the type of high-rise facilities in which hospitals and hotels provided more importance compared to office buildings, apartments and shopping complexes. Further, the study has highlighted the main gaps in the evacuation procedures and improvements required. Lack of imposed regulations for disabled evacuation was identified as a major barrier hindering the development of effective fire evacuation procedures for disabled, which creates a cascading effect. Further, the consideration given to legal, organisational, individual and technological factors would assist in straightening the identified issues.,This research provides a clear insight into the necessity of focussing at disabled individuals when developing fire emergency procedures. Most importantly, this study had exposed the current gaps in fire emergency evacuation procedures for the disabled community. Understanding these gaps is of high value for industry practitioners to ensure disabled safety during a fire emergency.
TL;DR: In this article , a mixed-ability population simulation in a 26-story residential building was used to evaluate the impact of evacuation strategies on the evacuation time and evacuation time of a mixedability population.
Abstract: The increasing growth of high-rise residential buildings in recent years and the existence of hazards such as fires, earthquakes, and terrorist incidents have increased the importance of evacuating buildings to save lives. Meanwhile, statistics show that a significant percentage of the population and hence residents of buildings are permanently disabled. However, the study of the evacuation of a mixed-ability population is more complicated than a homogeneous population. This study examined phased evacuation, emplacement strategy, and ramp installation using a mixed-ability population simulation in a 26-story residential building. The study population includes 2% of people with mobility limitations and 98% without disabilities. Unlike previous studies, the results revealed that phased evacuation could not reduce evacuation time in a mixed-ability population. It was also found that emplacement strategies could shorten the evacuation time by up to 10%, though suffering from an ethical problem. Meanwhile, combining ramp installation with others strategies offered the best and broadest impact on a safe evacuation and could improve evacuation time by up to 30% and reduce congestion on exit routes.